Table 1 Demographic data on participant groups
Intervention (n = 22)Waitlist (n = 22)
MSDMSD
Age (years)78.865.6974.736.10
Education (years)12.274.5411.683.58
Predicted IQ107.3615.51107.5510.00
MMSE25.922.7826.821.82
HVLT-R total recall17.555.4118.686.69
HVLT-R delayed recall4.053.373.593.97
  • Possible range28 and norms for HVLT-R age/education healthy older adults34: total recall (possible range 0–36) mean = 20.2, SD = 4.6, delayed recall (possible range 0–12) mean = 7.3, SD = 2.7.

  • HVLT-R, Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised; MMSE, Mini-Mental State Examination.