Table 4 Neuropsychological variables by subgroup
NP normal/CDR normal (n = 1451) Subgroup 1NP normal/CDR MCI (n = 751) Subgroup 2NP MCI/CDR normal (n = 381) Subgroup 3NP MCI/CDR MCI (n = 480) Subgroup 4ANOVA F
Episodic memory
    CVLT long delay recall9.9 (2.8)a8.8 (2.9)b7.9 (3.2)c6.3 (2.9)d173.79***
    R-O delayed recall17.3 (4.0)a16.9 (4.0)a13.2 (5.2)b11.9 (5.2)c234.65***
Attention/perceptual speed
    Digit span forward6.3 (1.3)a6.1 (1.3)a5.9 (1.3)b5.8 (1.3)b14.83***
    Trails A (s)39.5 (11.8)a42.6 (12.1)b50.0 (18.5)c54.8 (24.3)d113.06**
Visuospatial construction
    R-O copy (24 points)22.6 (1.7)a22.7 (1.6)a20.6(3.0)b20.6 (3.2)b176.00**
    Block design (24 points)13.2 (3.8)a12.1 (3.8)b9.7 (4.6)c8.7 (4.3)d168.91***
    30 point BNT27.4 (2.2)a27.0 (2.5)b25.6 (3.4)c24.5 (3.9)d134.11***
    Category fluency17.1 (4.2)a16.3 (3.9)b14.2 (4.2)c13.0 (3.6)d133.49***
Executive functions
    Trails B (s)95.0 (33.0)a111.1 (40.3)b127.9 (49.6)c148.7 (55.1)d192.70***
    Stroop interference83.2 (19.9)a76.9 (19.5)b66.1 (23.1)c59.8 (22.0)d151.20***
  • Values are mean (SD).

  • Overall Fs reported for ANCOVAS with age, education, race and CESD score included as covariates. Means within a given row with different superscripts (a, b, c, d) are statistically different at p<0.05 by Student–Neuman–Keuls procedure.

  • ***p<0.001.

  • BNT, Boston Naming Test; CDR, Clinical Dementia Rating; CESD, Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale; CVLT, California Verbal Learning Test; MCI, mild cognitive impairment; NP, neuropsychological; R-O, Rey–Osterrieth.