Table 1 Details of offspring with a neural tube defect
Folic acid dosePCFAAED (total dose mg/day)Major congenital malformationComments
5 mgYesCBZ 150Open myelomeningocele with associated intracranial changes of Arnold Chiari II with ventriculomegalyInduced abortion
5 mgYesCBZ 400Sacral myelomeningoceleInduced abortion
5 mgYesCBZ 600Spina bifidaInduced abortion
5 mgYesCBZ 1200Spina bifidaInduced abortion
LEV 3000
400 μgUnknownCBZ 1200Meningomyelocele and Arnold Chiari malformation
LTG 25
VPA1000
UnknownUnknownCBZ 1200Spina bifidaInduced abortion
VPA 1000
400 μgYesLTG 550Spina bifidaInduced abortion
5 mgNoLTG 200Spina bifida with patulous anus, lesion surgically closed
LEV 1000
VPA 1200
CLB 10
UnknownUnknownLTG 300Spina bifida, Arnold Chiari malformation upper spineInduced abortion
VPA 2000
UnknownUnknownVPA dose UClosed spina bifida and developmental delay
5 mgYesVPA 2000Lumbosacral NTD, VSD, ASD, cleft palate
5 mgYesVPA dose UMyelomeningocele
400 μgYesVPA 800Spina bifida, hydrocephalus, dislocated hips, neurogenic bladder and bowel
NoNoVPA 1500Myelomeningocele L1–L2, hydrocephalus, bilateral talipies
5 mgNoVPA 1000Ventriculomegaly, 3rd ventricle: 6 mm. 4th ventricle: 12 mm. Banana shaped cerebellum and obliterated cisterna magnum and sacral spina bifida. Arnold Chiari malformation. Thorax: pleural effusionInduced abortion
400 μgNoVPA 800Spina bifida occulta
5 mgNoVPA 800Large meningomyelocele was confirmed as was paralysis of lower limbs with fixed talipesInduced abortion
5 mgNoVPA 1500Lumboscaral myelomeningocele with hydrocephalus
5 mgNoVPA 1200Spina bifida and hydrocephalusInduced abortion
5 mgNoVPA 600Lumbosacral myelomeningocele
UnknownUnknownNo AEDsMyelomeningoceleInduced abortion
  • AED, antiepileptic drug; ASD, atrial septal defect; CBZ, carbamazepine; CLB, clobazam; LEV, levetiracetam; LTG, lamotrigine; MCM, major congenital malformation; NTD, neural tube defect; PCFA, preconceptual folic acid; VPA, sodium valproate; VSD, ventriculo-septal defect.