Table 2 Major congenital malformations in the entire evaluable cohort.
MCM groupMCMs in PCFA group (n = 1935) (n (%) (95% CI))MCMs in no PCFA group (n = 2375) (n (%) (95% CI))
All76 (3.9) (3.1–4.9)53 (2.2) (1.0–3.3)
NTD8 (0.4) (0.2–0.8)8 (0.3) (0.2–0.7)
Oral clefts8 (0.4) (0.2–0.8)11 (0.5) (0.3–0.8)
Hypospadias11 (0.6) (0.3–1.0)6 (0.3) (0.1–0.6)
Cardiac19 (1.0) (0.6–1.5)11 (0.5) (0.3–0.8)
  • MCM, major congenital malformation; NTD, neural tube defect; PCFA, preconceptual folic acid.