Table 2

Characteristics of studies that met inclusion criteria

Study size and periodMinimum sleep seizuresLocation and designAntiepileptic therapyExcluded
Gibberd and Bateson36-year retrospective; follow-up of one to 42 years; sample size—645; 76 with sleep seizuresOne seizure, clinical epilepsy diagnosis and an EEG; pure sleep epilepsy for 6 months following first seizure; motor seizures onlyRetrospective cohort of outpatients; single UK centreUnclear; most probably untreated17% of case notes were unavailable
D'Alessandro et al20Unclear2 or moreRetrospective cohort of outpatients; tertiary referrals ItalyFocal onset and unclassified
Park et al214-year retrospective; sample size—63 with sleep seizures2 or more, unprovoked; all had sleep-provoked EEGRetrospective cohort of outpatients; single centre South Korea35% untreated at entry;
all patients received antiepileptic drugs
Syndromic epilepsy—for example, juvenile myoclonic epilepsy
D'Alessandro et al22Consecutive patients over 4 years; sample size—1612 or more within 2 years; must have witnessProspective cohort; Multicentre in northeast Italy46% at enrolment, 93% at end of follow-upFrontal-lobe epilepsy
Fernández and Salas-Puig7Retrospective 10 years; sample size—55 with sleep seizures3 or more seizures; no awake seizures for 10 yearsRetrospective cohort of outpatients; single University Hospital centre, Spain2 untreated
64% monotherapy, 31% dual therapy
1 on three antiepileptic drugs
Under 18s; absences and myoclonus