Table 1

Sociodemographic profiles of chronic and episodic migraineurs*

VariablesChronic migraineEpisodic migrainep Value
Mean (SD)Mean (SD)
Age47.7 (14.0)46.0 (13.8)0.03
BMI29.8 (8.3)29.2 (7.9)0.06
N(%)N(%)p Value
GenderFemale515 (78.6)8469 (80.0)0.46
RaceCaucasian594 (90.7)9263 (87.3)0.01
African–American26 (4.0)759 (7.2)
Other/no answer35 (5.3)587 (5.5)
Highest level of education†Eight grades or less14 (2.3)122 (1.1)0.35
Some HS28 (4.3)506 (4.6)
HS graduate or GED163 (25.3)2672 (24.0)
Some college or technical school264 (40.8)4309 (38.7)
College graduate124 (19.8)2281 (20.5)
Graduate degree54 (8.4)1252 (11.2)
Household income‡<$22500 (Reference)196 (29.9)2798 (24.9)0.02
$22500–$39999140 (21.4)2249 (20.0)
$40000–$59999106 (16.2)2120 (18.9)
$60000–$89999121 (18.5)2078 (18.5)
$90000+92 (14.1)2004 (17.8)
Employment status‡§Employed full time242 (37.8)5772 (52.3)<0.001
Employed part time72 (11.3)1435 (13.1)0.26
Unemployed48 (7.5)811 (7.4)0.76
Retired95 (14.8)1385 (12.6)0.54
Student20 (3.1)414 (3.8)0.63
Home-maker124 (19.4)1781(16.14)0.04
Disabled128 (20.0)1225(11.10)<0.001
Volunteer20 (3.1)253(2.29)0.25
Insured‡Yes491 (93.7)8339 (93.0)0.24
No (reference)33 (6.3)628 (7.0)
Marital Status‡Single126 (19.4)2286 (20.6)0.04
Married384 (59.3)6763 (60.8)
Divorced112 (17.3)1502 (13.5)
Widowed26 (4.0)571 (5.1)
  • * Ns vary as a function of response/non-response (missing data) to each individual item.

  • Statistical test used was ordered logistic regression, in which OR indicates how contrasted groups differ in the probability of the higher response category.

  • Effects of income were adjusted for age and gender, while the effects of education, employment, insurance and marital statuses were adjusted for age, gender and income.

  • § Numbers may sum to more than 100% because respondents were instructed to endorse all response options that applied to them.