Table 1

Summary of clinical, OCB, antibody against aquaporin-4 (AQP4-IgG) and spinal MRI characteristics* data of 26 patients with longitudinal extensive myelopathy

Conventional multiple sclerosis (n = 13)Non-conventional multiple sclerosis
Total (n = 13)Neuromyelitis optica (n = 7)Isolated longitudinal extensive myelopathy (n = 6)
Sex ratio (male/female)4/97/64/33/3
Age at examination (years)44.9 (11.3)51.8 (12.2)55.9 (13.1)47.0 (10.3)
Age at onset (years)30.6 (8.0)43.6 (13.0)†46.0 (14.2)†40.2 (13.8)†
Disease duration (years)14.3 (10.0)8.2 (7.4)9.9 (9.7)6.3 (3.3)
Relapse number4.4 (2.5)2.8 (1.5)3.4 (1.5)2.2 (1.2)
Relapse rate0.6 (0.7)0.6 (0.5)0.8 (0.6)0.4 (0.3)
Final Extended Disability Status Scale5.1 (2.4)6.4 (3.6)8.0 (2.9)†5.2 (3.7)
Oligoclonal band in cerebrospinal fluid (+), n (%)3/5 (60%)2/10 (20%)0/6 (0%)2/4 (50%)
AQP4-IgG (+), n (%)0/10 (0%)1/10 (10%)0/4 (0%)1/6 (16.7%)
Spinal cord lesion length, segments (range)4.5 (1.3) (3 to 7)8.5 (4.5)† (3 to 18)7.1 (3.2) (3 to 12)10.2 (5.5)† (4 to 18)
Sagittal distribution, n (%)
 C1–C36 (46.2%)5 (38.5%)3 (42.9%)2 (33.3%)
 C4–C710 (76.9%)7 (53.8%)4 (57.1%)3 (50.0%)
 T1–T41 (7.7%)8 (61.5%)†4 (57.1%)†4 (66.7%)†
 T5–T84 (30.8%)7 (53.8%)2 (28.6%)5 (83.3%)
 T9–T120 (0%)3 (23.1%)2 (28.6%)1 (16.7%)
Axial distribution, n (%)
 Holocord‡3 (23.1%)4 (30.8%)2 (28.6%)2 (33.3%)
 Central cord6 (46.1%)7 (53.8%)3 (42.9%)4 (66.7%)
 Peripheral cord4 (30.8%)2 (15.4%)2 (28.6%)0 (0%)
Swelling cord, n (%)5 (38.5%)10 (76.9%)6 (85.7%)4 (66.7%)
Gadolinium enhancement, n (%)2/8 (25%)9/12 (75.0%)6/7 (85.7%)3/5 (60%)
  • * Only longitudinal extensive myelopathy lesions were analysed; short lesions were not included.

  • Statistically significant in comparison with conventional multiple sclerosis (p<0.05).

  • Holocord applies to total transverse cord involvement.