Table 1

Background and disease-related data of the patient sample

Education levelMarital statusLiving environmentSexCommunication*
Higher13Married21Own household25Male15Normal7
Lower14Single3Nursing home2Female12Impaired15
Widowed2With devices3
Onset of ALSType of ALSArtificial ventilationInvasive ventilationPEG
  • * Normal communication refers to normal speech process; impaired communication ranged from ‘detectable speech disturbance’ to ‘communication intelligible with repeating’; with devices referring to loss of useful speech and communication exclusively possible by using assistive technology and/or eye movements.

  • ALS, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; PEG, percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy.