Table 1

Language characteristics in primary progressive aphasia variants52 55 61–64

Spontaneous speechMotor speechSingle word comprehensionGrammar/sentence comprehensionSentence repetitionNaming/word retrievalFluencyReading
Semantic dementia
  • Fluent

  • Grammatically correct

  • Empty and circumlocutory

  • Semantic errors

SparedImpairedInitially spared, becomes impaired as single word comprehension deterioratesSparedAnomia (nouns>verbs)Impaired (categorical>letter)Surface dyslexia
Progressive non-fluent aphasia
  • Decreased fluency

  • Articulatory errors

  • Apraxia of speech and/or

  • Agrammatism

ImpairedInitially spared, becomes affected in late diseaseImpaired for complex sentencesCan be impaired
  • Spared initially but anomic as disease progresses

  • (verbs>nouns)

Impaired (letter>categorical)Phonological dyslexia
Logopenic or phonological variant
  • Slow output with word-finding pauses

  • Phonemic paraphasias

SparedRelatively sparedImpaired for simple and complex sentencesImpairedImpairedImpaired (letter≈categorical)Phonological dyslexia