Table 5

Neuropsychological test scores at baseline and long term follow-up. Positive scores indicate improvement. CANTAB tests are italicised

NChange in performance (%)p Value
General intelligence
 NART–Verbal IQ121.0NS
 NART–Performance IQ121.2NS
 NART–Full Scale IQ121.2NS
 WAIS–Arithmetic (scaled score)8−7.3NS
 WAIS–Comprehension (scaled score)9−11.4NS
 WAIS–Digit Symbol (scaled score)90.0NS
MTS (% correct)11−2.1NS
DMS (% correct—all delays)14−9.6NS
SRM (% correct)1428.50.04
PRM (% correct)148.1NS
 Digit Span (Forwards)161.1NS
 Digit Span (Backwards)1527.40.03
 Verbal Paired Associates (Immediate)818.8NS
 Verbal Paired Associates (Delayed)814.7NS
 Logical Memory (Immediate Recall)1418.0NS
 Logical Memory (Delayed Recall)1425.8NS
 Visual Reproduction (Immediate)1527.8NS
 Visual Reproduction (Delayed)1415.2NS
Executive function
 Verbal Fluency (Animals)1527.4NS
 Verbal Fluency (‘S’)1216.3NS
 Block Design9−7.9NS
 Trail Making Test (A)11−7.3NS
 Trail Making Test (B)9−0.2NS
SWM (total errors)1323.60.04
ID/ED Shift (stages completed)1324.90.034*
ID/ED Shift (total errors, adjusted)1367.60.009*
SOC (problems solved in minimum moves)1212.0NS
  • All tests paired sample t test, unless specified (*Mann–Whitney U test).

  • CANTAB, Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery; DMS, Delayed Matching to Sample; ID/ED, Intradimensional/Extradimensional Shift; MTS, Matching to Sample; NART, National Adult Reading Test; PAL, Paired Associate Learning; PRM, Pattern Recognition Memory; SOC, Stockings of Cambridge; SRM, Spatial Recognition Memory; SSP, Spatial Span; SWM, Spatial Working Memory; WAIS, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale.