Table 1

Characteristics of the studies included

Study, yearNo of participants with follow-up dataAge (years)*Gender male/femaleTreatmentMain outcomeDuration (weeks)No of treatment sessionsTotal duration of treatment (h)ProvidersSetting
Wall and Turnbull,21 198715545–70NANIUntreatedSDW normalised by stature265252PT and family (spouse or companion)Mixed (outpatient, home)
Wade et al,24 1992484172.3 (9.7)72.0 (10.6)27/2220/25FA NI AEUntreatedSDW13Mean 4, range 1–11NAPTHome
Werner and Kessler,22 1996281266 (13)59 (9)14/145/7NI MSUntreatedFIM-mm124896Multidisciplinary staff (PT+OT)Outpatient‡
Teixeira-Salmela et al,2619996765.8 (10.2)69.4 (8.8)1/56/1MS FAUntreatedSDW103030–45Multidisciplinary staff (PT+EP)Outpatient
Kim et al,29 2001101060.4 (9.5)61.9 (7.5)7/37/3MSPassive range of motionSDW61813.5PTOutpatient
Green et al,23 2002818071.5 (8.7)73.5 (8.3)49/3646/39FA NIUntreatedRMI3–13 contactsMedian 3, range 0–22 (five participants were evaluated, but were not treated)NA. Individual treatment duration averaged 44 minPTMixed (outpatient, home)
Ada et al,30 2003131466 (11)66 (11)9/410/4NISham home exercise programmeSDW4126PTOutpatient
Lin et al,27 200491061.4 (11.2)62.8 (9.4)7/26/4NI FAUntreatedBI101010PTHome
Ouellette et al,31 2004212165.8 (2.5)66.1 (2.1)28/14MSRange of motion and upper body flexibility exercises6MWT1236NAPTOutpatient
Pang et al,32 2005323165.8 (9.1)64.7 (8.4)19/1318/13MS NISeated upper extremity exercises6MWT195757Multidisciplinary staff (PT+TO+EI)Outpatient
Yang et al,33 2006242456.8 (10.2)60.0 (10.4)16/816/8MS NIUntreatedSDW4126PTOutpatient
Yang et al,34 2007131259.5 (11.8)59.2 (12)7/67/5NIUntreatedSDW4126PT
Flasbjer,23 200815961 (5)60 (5)9/65/4MSUsual daily activitiesTUG1020NAPTOutpatient
Ng and Hui-Chan,19 2009252956.9 (8.6)55.5 (8)20/520/9NIUntreatedSDW420NAPTHome
Mudge et al,20 2009312776 (39–89)71 (44–86)19/1213/14NISocial and educational sessionsSDW41210–12PTOutpatient
  • * Data are reported as mean (SD) or range.

  • Main outcome was represented by the primary outcome, when explicitly declared, or by the first mobility and ADL independence outcome reported.

  • In groups of eight to 12 persons.

  • 6MWT, 6 min walk test; AE, application of assistive equipments; BI, Barthel Index; Ctr, control group; EI, exercise instructor; EP, exercise physiologist; FA, practising functional activities; FIM-mm, functional independence measures—motor measure; Int, intervention group; MS, muscle strengthening; NA, not available; NI, neuromuscular interventions; OT, occupational therapist; PT, physiotherapist; RMI, Rivermead Mobility Index; SDW, short-distance walk; TUG, timed up and go test.