Table 2

Relative risks (RR) of depressive symptoms associated with indicators of cerebral small-vessel and large-vessel disease and global brain atrophy

Depressive symptoms
RR (95% CI)
Small-vessel disease
 Lacunar infarcts (n=133)
  Model I1.09 (0.71 to 1.67)
  Model II0.86 (0.56 to 1.31)
  Model III§0.83 (0.53 to 1.29)
 Total WML*
  Model I1.07 (0.88 to 1.31)
  Model II1.07 (0.85 to 1.34)
  Model III§1.07 (0.85 to 1.35)
Large-vessel disease
 Cortical infarcts (n=82)
  Model I1.22 (0.78 to 1.92)
  Model II0.99 (0.63 to 1.57)
  Model III§0.98 (0.57 to 1.68)
 Large subcortical infarcts (n=7)
  Model I3.48 (1.76 to 6.89)
  Model II2.56 (1.29 to 5.05)
  Model III§2.66 (1.28 to 5.54)
Brain atrophy*
 Model I1.22 (0.97 to 1.53)
 Model II1.11 (0.85 to 1.44)
 Model III§1.10 (0.85 to 1.44)
  • Presence of depressive symptoms is defined as a Patient Health Questionnaire-9 score of ≥6.

  • * Per SD increase (white-matter lesions, SD=0.44%; global brain atrophy, SD=2.77%).

  • Adjusted for age, sex and education.

  • Additionally adjusted for hypertension, diabetes mellitus and physical functioning.

  • § Additionally adjusted for co-occurring infarcts and white-matter lesion volume.