Table 3

Results of linear regression models with indicators of cerebral small-vessel and large-vessel disease and global brain atrophy as determinants, and z-scores of cognitive domains as outcome variables

Executive functioningMemoryProcessing speed
β (95% CI)β (95% CI)β (95% CI)
Small-vessel disease
 Lacunar infarcts (n=133)
  Model I−0.25 (−0.43 to −0.06)−0.21 (−0.39 to −0.03)−0.23 (−0.39 to −0.06)
  Model II−0.24 (−0.42 to −0.05)−0.19 (−0.38 to −0.01)−0.22 (−0.38 to −0.05)
  Model III§−0.13 (−0.33 to 0.06)−0.13 (−0.32 to 0.07)−0.19 (−0.37 to −0.01)
 Total white-matter lesions*
  Model I−0.13 (−0.21 to −0.05)−0.08 (−0.16 to −0.00)−0.04 (−0.12 to 0.03)
  Model II−0.13 (−0.21 to −0.05)−0.09 (−0.17 to −0.01)−0.04 (−0.11 to 0.03)
  Model III§−0.10 (−0.18 to −0.02)−0.06 (−0.14 to 0.02)−0.02 (−0.10 to 0.05)
Large-vessel disease
 Cortical infarcts (n=82)
  Model I−0.12 (−0.33 to 0.10)−0.09 (−0.31 to 0.12)−0.24 (−0.44 to −0.05)
  Model II−0.12 (−0.34 to 0.10)−0.08 (−0.30 to 0.13)−0.24 (−0.44 to −0.05)
  Model III§−0.05 (−0.27 to 0.17)−0.03 (−0.24 to 0.19)−0.20 (−0.40 to −0.00)
 Subcortical infarcts (n=7)
  Model I−0.95 (−1.62 to −0.29)−0.76 (−1.42 to −0.10)−0.60 (−1.21 to 0.01)
  Model II−0.93 (−1.60 to −0.26)−0.72 (−1.39 to −0.06)−0.59 (−1.20 to 0.03)
  Model III§−0.88 (−1.55 to −0.21)−0.68 (−1.35 to −0.02)−0.47 (−1.08 to 0.14)
Global brain atrophy*
 Model I−0.10 (−0.19 to 0.00)−0.13 (−0.23 to −0.03)−0.19 (−0.28 to −0.11)
 Model II−0.10 (−0.20 to 0.00)−0.12 (−0.22 to −0.02)−0.20 (−0.29 to −0.11)
 Model III§−0.07 (−0.17 to 0.03)−0.10 (−0.20 to 0.00)−0.19 (−0.28 to −0.10)
  • * Per SD increase (white-matter lesions, SD=0.44%; global brain atrophy, SD=2.77%).

  • Adjusted for age, sex, Dutch Adult Reading Test score and education.

  • Additionally adjusted for hypertension, diabetes mellitus and physical functioning.

  • § Additionally adjusted for co-occurring infarcts and white-matter lesion volume.