Table 1

Regional distribution of the 321 studies and their prevalence estimates

StudiesPrevalence estimatesAge-standardised prevalence estimatesSex-specific, age-standardised prevalence estimates
Australasia16 (16)31 (31)27 (27)26 (26)
Western Europe
 UK and Ireland36 (40)47 (54)21 (24)21 (24)
 Scandinavia and North Atlantic41 (41)101 (102)41 (41)18 (18)
 Atlantic and Central Europe48 (57)130 (143)20 (20)18 (18)
 Italian region55 (59)66 (71)31 (31)30 (30)
Eastern Europe39 (51)144 (184)48 (49)16 (17)
North America43 (47)58 (62)30 (30)13 (13)
Latin America and Caribbean2 (17)21 (28)4 (4)4 (4)
Middle East and Africa*16 (21)20 (25)11 (12)9 (10)
Asia and Pacific16 (16)32 (32)6 (6)4 (4)
Total321 (365)650 (732)239 (244)159 (164)
  • Numbers in parentheses include non-peer-reviewed studies. National designations are as follows: Australasia (including Australia and New Zealand); UK region (including the United Kingdom of Greater Britain and Northern Ireland (England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales, the Republic of Ireland, and the Orkney Islands (UK); Scandinavia and North Atlantic (including Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, the Faroe Islands (Denmark), and the Shetland Islands (UK)), Atlantic and Central Europe (including Belgium, the Czech Republic, France, Germany, The Netherlands, Portugal, Spain (continental, the Balearic Islands and the Canary Islands) and Switzerland); Italian Region (including Peninsular and Insular Italy, San Marino and the island-region of Corsica of France); Eastern Europe (including Albania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Estonia, Greece, Hungary, Lithuania, Macedonia, Poland, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Ukraine and the country formerly known as Yugoslavia); North America (including Canada, and continental and insular United States of America); Latin America and the Caribbean (including Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Panama, Peru, Uruguay and the French West Antilles); the Middle East and Africa (including Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Libya, Malta Qatar, Saudi Arabia, South Africa and Turkey); Asia and Pacific Islands (including Fiji, India, Japan, the People's Republic of China and the Republic of China (Taiwan)).

  • * The nation of Malta is allocated to the Middle East and Africa region (see supplement 3 for rationale), but for analyses of Western Europe, Malta is included.