Table 1

Tasks included in the neuropsychological battery classified by cognitive domain and the definitions used for dysfunction in each cognitive domain

Remarks
Executive dysfunctionImpairment that is two SD below the mean for healthy controls on at least two executive tasks
 Stroop Colour-Word Test12(a) Priming trial: patients presented with a multicoloured list of colour names and asked to read as many words as they can in 2 minutes. (b) Inhibitory trial: a similar list is presented but colour names (eg, ‘blue’) are printed in an ink colour not denoted by the name (eg, red). Correct responses in two minutes are recorded.
Non-executive factors (including bulbar disability) contribute equally to both trials. The difference in scores between the two trials represent the number of responses ‘lost’ due to the delay imposed by the extra executive demands in the inhibitory trial.
 Brixton Spatial Anticipation Test13
 Backward digit span14
 Category fluencyPatients were asked to name as many animals as they could think of in 1 minute (spoken only).
 Phonemic verbal fluency15Written/spoken, number of words starting with letter ‘S’ generated in 5 minutes and number of four letter words starting with letter ‘C’ generated in 4 minutes. Verbal Fluency Index15 used to adjust for disability.
Memory dysfunctionImpairment that is two SD below the mean for healthy controls on at least four* of the parameters highlighted using +
 Logical Memory (LM)14+LM1 (immediate recall), +LM2 (delayed recall) and +LM retention (retention)
 Verbal Paired Associate (VPA)14+VPA1 (immediate recall),+VPA2 (delayed recall) and +VPA retention (retention)
 Auditory Delayed Recognition Task14+Sum of total recognition scores on Logical Memory and Verbal Paired Associates
 California Verbal Learning Tests16+Total of five trials, +short delay free recall (immediate recall) +long delay free recall (delayed recall)
 Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test17Non-verbal memory: parameters used: +immediate and +delayed recall trials
Language dysfunction
 Boston Naming Test18Impairment that is two SD below the mean for healthy controls on this task.
Visuo-spatial dysfunction
 Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test17Impairment that is two SD below the mean for healthy controls on copy trial of this task.
  • * Exception, in bulbar-onset patients who were only able to perform non-verbal memory tasks, memory impairment was defined as impairment in both immediate and delayed recall trials of the ROCF task.

  • ROCF, Rey–Osterrieth Complex Figure Test.