Table 4

Schematic table displaying the published data of caudal zona incerta/posterior subthalamic area deep brain stimulation for essential tremor

AuthorPatients/proceduresFollow-up (months) (mean (range))TargetSide effects / complicationsResults
Kitagawa 200061 unilateralSee Murata 2003None reported‘Abolition’ of tremor
Murata 200398 unilateral*23 (8–42)Approx 10 mm lat, 3–4 mm behind the posterior border of STN on the axial slice with the greatest STN diameter. Active contacts (mm): 11 lat, 7.5 post MCP, 4 inferior to the ICLOnly stimulation induced that did not affect the resultContralateral tremor improved by 81%
Plaha 2004124 bilateral12Medial to the posterior dorsal third of the STNNone reportedTotal ETRS improved by 80%. FMS improved 75.2%
Plaha 2008106 bilateral12Posterior–medial to the posterior–dorsal STNNot specified for the ET patients in this studyTotal ETRS improved by 75.9%
Blomstedt 20101119 unilateral, 2 bilateral12Posterior–medial to the STN at the level of the maximal diameter of the red nucleus. Active contacts (mm): 11.6 lat, 6.3 post MCP, 3.0 inferior to the ICL8 Transient dysphasia and 1 clumsiness. 1 suboptimal effect due to side effects. 3 hardware relatedETRS improved 60%. Upper extremity tremor (item 5/6) 95%. Hand function (items 11–14) 87%
Plaha 2011515 bilateral32 (12–84)Posterior–medial to the posterior–dorsal STN3 stimulation related dysarthria. 1 infectionETRS improved 74%, FMS 73.5%
Fytagoridis 201116 unilateral, 2 bilateral48.5 (34–62)See Blomstedt 2010. Active contacts (mm): 12.0 lat, 6.3 post MCP, 2.2 inferior to the ICL1 hardware relatedETRS 52%. Tremor (item 5/6) 92%. Hand function 78%
  • FMS=category used by Plaha et al: upper limb action and postural tremor combined with items 10–14 (hand function and writing).

  • * One patient was previously presented in Kitagawa 2000.

  • Six patients were previously reported in Plaha 2008.

  • Long term follow-up of patients from Blomstedt et al 2010.

  • cZi, caudal zona incerta; DBS, deep brain stimulation; ET, essential tremor; ETRS, Essential Tremor Rating Scale; FMS, functional motor score; ICL, intercommissural line; lat, lateral; MCP, midcommissural point; PSA, posterior subthalamic area; STN, nucleus subthalamicus.