Table 2

Associations between characteristics at injury and outcome at 12–14 years, as measured by the Glasgow Outcome Score-Extended (n=121)

NGOSE at 12–14 year follow-up (%)
DeadLower SDUpper SDLower MDUpper MDLower GRUpper GR
Age at injury
 ≤40 years7112.75.62.829.62.822.523.9
 >40 years5050101244812
Initial severity (GCS)
 Mild (13–15)7722.19.17.819.55.216.919.5
 Moderate (9–12)2437.
 Severe (<9)1838.95.65.627.805.616.7
Previous head injury
Previous physical limitation
Previous other brain illness*
Excessive alcohol use
Social deprivation
 Lower deprivation (≤7)6726.9910.416.4313.420.9
 Higher deprivation (>7)40257.502552017.5
  • * Mental problems, stroke or other conditions requiring medical attention.

  • GCS, Glasgow Coma Scale; GOSE, Glasgow Outcome Score-Extended; GR good recovery; MD moderate disability; SD, severe disability.