Table 1

Parkinson's disease subtypes identified by data driven studies

Author, yearSubtypes identified
Graham 19993
  • Short duration (mean 5 years):

    • 1. Good motor control without cognitive impairment

    • 2. Good motor control, executive cognitive deficits

    • 3. Older age at onset, poor motor control + complications, mild cognitive impairment

  • Longer duration (mean 14 years):

    • 1. Poor motor control, no cognitive impairment

    • 2. Poor motor control, moderately severe cognitive impairment

Gasparoli 20024
  1. Rapid progression

  2. Slow progression

Dujardin 20045
  1. Mild motor impairment, relatively preserved cognition

  2. ‘Reduced overall cognitive efficiency’, subcorticofrontal syndrome and more severe motor dysfunction

Lewis 20056
  1. Young onset

  2. Non-tremor dominant, cognitive impairment and depression

  3. Rapid progression without cognitive impairment

  4. Tremor dominant

Schrag 20067
  1. Young onset

  2. Older onset, more rapid progression, less dyskinesias and fluctuations

Post 20088
  1. Young onset with slow progression

  2. Intermediate age onset with anxiety and depression

  3. Oldest onset

Reijnders 20099
  1. Rapid progression

  2. Young onset with motor complications

  3. Non-tremor dominant and psychopathology

  4. Tremor dominant

Van Rooden 201110
  1. Mild all domains, young

  2. Severe motor complications, sleep and depressive symptoms, youngest

  3. Medium severity, older

  4. Most severe, except mild tremor, prominent motor complications, older

Liu 201111
  1. Non-tremor dominant

  2. Rapid disease progression

  3. Young onset

  4. Tremor dominant