Table 2

Efficacy criteria during standardised ‘on-L-dopa’ assessment

Memantine (n=13)Placebo (n=11)p-value (adjusted effect size)
Study entryStudy endStudy entryStudy endCovariance analysis
Gait (optoelectronic analysis)
 Stride length (m) (increased=better)1.09 [1.02–1.2]1.05 [0.93–1.2]0.84 [0.77–1.18]1.12 [0.75–1.24]F(1,21)=0.27; p=0.61 (−0.2)
 Velocity (m/s) (increased=better)0.99 [0.95–1.1]1.01 [0.76–1.07]0.81 [0.69–1.06]1.05 [0.75–1.12]F(1,21)=0.54; p=0.47 (−0.3)
Cadence (steps/min) (decreased=better)114 [108–127]112 [99–124]112 [106–116]114 [109–114]F(1,21)=0.72; p=0.41 (−0.4)
Motor handicap (motor UPDRS score)
 Axial subscore10 [8–12]9 [6–10]10 [8–13]10 [8–13]F(1,21)=7.2; p=0.014 (−1.1)
 Overall score26 [19–37]25 [15–34]26 [22–35]27 [23–35]F(1,21)=4.9; p=0.039 (−1)
Dyskinesia (Dyskinesia Rating Scale)
 Axial subscore3 [2–3]1 [0–2]3 [1–4]3 [1–3.5]F(1,21)=11; p=0.003 (−1.4)
 Overall score5 [3–7]3 [1–5]6 [1–9]6 [1–10]F(1,21)=19; p=0.0003 (−1.9)
Trunk hypertonia (isokinetic dynamometer) (decrease=better)
 Flexor (J)4.3 [3.5–6.6]3.1 [2.3–4.7]4.4 [3.2–7.2]4.9 [4–7]F(1,18)=21.3; p=0.0001 (−2)
 Extensor (J)3.9 [2–8.5]2.6 [1.9–6.5]4.6 [2.7–5.1]5 [4.1–5.4]F(1,18)=12.5; p=0.002 (−1.5)
Trunk flexor and extensor strength (isokinetic dynamometer) (increase=better)
 Flexor (J)25 [18–26]31 [25–37]27 [15–32]26 [17–31]F(1,18)=13.5; p=0.002 (1.8)
 Extensor (J)25 15–31]33 [25–39]21 [15–36]21 [17–33]F(1,18)=12.8; p=0.02 (1.7)
  • The parameters are expressed as the median value [1st quartile–3rd quartile]. Parameters were recorded before and after 90 days of treatment with memantine or placebo), following acute administration of L-dopa. The parameters included the stride length (m), velocity (m/s) and cadence (steps/min) during gait (as measured by an optoelectronic system with a 6-camera VICON Video System from Oxford Metrics (Oxford, UK)), the overall UPDRS motor score, the UPDRS motor axial subscore (the sum of items 18 (speech), 19 (facial expression), 22 (neck rigidity), 27 (arising from a chair), 28 (posture), 29 (gait) and 30 (postural stability)), the overall Dyskinesia Rating Scale score and its axial subscore, axial flexor and extensor hypertonia (measured as the mean work (in joules) for three passive flexions and extensions at 30°/s on an isokinetic dynamometer) and axial flexor and extensor strength (measured as the mean work (in joules) for three active flexions and extensions at 30°/s on an isokinetic dynamometer). UPDRS, United Parkinson's Disease rating scale.