Table 1

Cohort demographics in the Liverpool and Manchester neurodevelopment group prospective study

Seizures during pregnancy (%)Maternal epilepsy type
Numbers enrolled 2000–2004 (n)*Outcome known (n)% retainedConvulsiveNon-convulsiveIGE (%)F (%)UC (%)Mean maternal age (years)Alcohol (%)Nicotine (%)Socioeconomic status (% professional)Gender (% male)Mean child age (mths)Mean gestational age at birth (weeks)
Controls† 285 214752930.816.440.751.97440
WWE‡2432018333.514.332.054.213.82817.927.931.057.17439
 CBZ59508519.619.69.880.49.83017.623.541.249.07439
 LTG36308340.010.023.356.720.02810.016.740.056.77440
 Other141410035.721.428.671.40.03028.650.028.657.17440
 VPA59508541.211.866.721.611.82717.629.423.568.67439
 Poly VPA30206750.01035.055.010.02610.526.325.050.07539
 Poly Other111110081.89.1081.818.22927.318.218.254.57439
 No Med342676*4.012.032.040.028.02625.037.532.072.07539
  • *Figures are inclusive of children recruited between 2000 and 2004 who attended at least one appointment or completed one phone visit with investigators (actively enrolled).

  • †Two sets of dizygotic twins included.

  • ‡Five sets of twins—three exposed to monotherapy VPA (one dizygotic pair and one unconfirmed) and two exposed to monotherapy CBZ (one dizygotic pair). Alcohol—any level of consumption during pregnancy (including prior to conception). Nicotine—including prior to knowledge of conception.

  • CBZ, carbamazepine; F, focal; IGE, idiopathic generalised epilepsy; LTG, lamotrigine; UC, unclassified; VPA, valproate; WWE, women with epilepsy.