Table 2

Changes in WHOQOL-BREF between different time points

T0T1 (a)Difference T0–T1 (a)T2 (b)DifferenceT1–T2Difference T0–T2 (b)
General3.23 (0.83)5.62 (2.18)*t(12)=−4.17, p=0.0056.15 (2.11)*t(12)=−0.86, p=0.41*t(12)=−4.76, p<0.001
 Responder6.25 (2.49)md: −2.88 (2.30)6.8 (1.81)md: −3.4 (2.07)
 Non-responder4.60 (1.14)md: −1.60 (1.51)4.00 (1.73)md: −1.33 (2.31)
Physical9.45 (2.85)11.65 (3.46)*t(12)=−2.51, p=0.02813.19 (3.42)*t(12)=−2.36, p=0.036*t(12)=−3.75, p=0.003
 Responder12.71 (3.70)md: −2.43 (3.82)14.11 (3.12)md: −4.00 (3.78)
 Non-responder9.94 (2.44)md: −1.83 (1.52)10.10 (2.82)md: −2.86 (3.48)
Psychological8.82 (1.57)11.23 (3.00)*t(12)=−3.80, p=0.00312.31 (2.88)*t(12)=−2.30, p=0.040*t(12)=−4.89, p<0.001
 Responder12.08 (3.26)md: −2.58 (2.65)12.93 (2.58)md: −3.80 (2.59)
 Non-responder9.87 (2.18)md: −2.13 (1.79)10.22 (3.36)md: −2.44 (2.69)
Social10.77 (3.83)11.38 (4.54)*t(12)=−0.73, p=0.48212.31 (3.82)*t(12)=−1.21, p=0.248*t(12)=−1.97 p=0.073
 Responder11.33 (4.45)md:0.17 (3.45)12.13 (3.11)md: −1.47 (2.84)
 Non-responder11.46 (5.21)md: −1.87 (2.02)12.89 (6.58)md: −1.78 (3.36)
Environmental12.31 (2.01)13.25 (2.72)*t(12)=−2.42, p=0.03114.31 (3.07)*t(12)=−1.57, p=0.142*t(12)=−3.14, p=0.009
 Responder14.13 (3.17)md: −1.69 (1.96)14.90 (2.85)md: −2.65 (1.60)
 Non-responder12.60 (1.67)md: −0.50 (1.52)12.33 (3.55)md:0.17 (3.33)
  • T0, 1 month before device implantation; T1, after 8 months of active stimulation; T2, after 3–5 years of active stimulation.

  • (*) Paired samples t tests; (a) nr responders T1 n=8, non-responders T1 n=5; (b) nr responders T2 n=10, non-responders T2 n=3. md: mean difference.

  • WHOQOL-BREF, WHO Quality of Life Scale-Brief Version.