Table 1

Characteristics of included studies

ReferenceSettingTotal patients consented/total testedTiming of tests post-strokeTest doneSubtypingPrimary outcomeResults
Nys 20078 9Hospital The Netherlands190/168*3 weeksNP†ImagingMCI‡29/64 (45%)§ Lacunar
47/63 (75%)§ Non-lacunar
Sachdev et al10Hospital Australia210/170*3–6 monthsNPRisk factorDementia or MCI24/46 (52%) Lacunar
74/120 (62%) Non-lacunar
De Koning et al11Hospital The Netherlands130/121*3–9 monthsNPImagingDementia4/20 (20%) Lacunar¶
17/38 (45%) Non-lacunar¶
Censori et al12Hospital Italy121/110**3–4 MonthsNP and MMSE††ClinicalDementia2/21 (10%) Lacunar
13/83 (16%)Non-lacunar
Tatemichi et al13Hospital USA927/7262 yearsClinical impressionRisk factorDementia25/227 (11%) Lacunar
91/499 (18%) Non-lacunar
Bejot et al14Community France3948/3201*1 monthNPRisk factorDementia333/887 (38%) Lacunar
289/1960 (15%) Non-lacunar
Lin et al15Hospital Taiwan353/2833 monthsNPRisk factorDementia13/136 (10%) Lacunar
13/147 (9%) Non-lacunar
Patel et al16 17Community UK1454/654*3 monthsMMSEClinicalMMSE<2472/218 (33%) Lacunar
124/297 (42%) Non-lacunar
Cordoliani-Mackowiak et al18Hospital France132/88‡‡Up to 3 yearsNPRisk factorDementia8/31 (26%) Lacunar
24/101 (24%) Non-lacunar
Rasquin et al19–22Hospital The Netherlands176/1441 yearsNPImagingMCI or Dementia40/57 (70%) Lacunar
59/87 (68%) Non-lacunar§§
Pohjasvaara et al23Hospital Finland451/3373 monthsNPRisk factorDementia5/21 (24%) Lacunar
102/316 (32%) Non-lacunar
Tang et al24Hospital China484/280*3 monthsMMSEImagingDementia33/166 (20%) Lacunar
18/90 (20%) Non-lacunar
Madureira et al25Hospital Portugal180/1653 monthsNPImagingDementia6/139 (4.3%) Lacunar¶¶
5/41 (12%) Non-lacunar¶¶
Klimkowicz-Mrowiec et al26Hospital Poland173/145‡‡*3 monthsNP and MMSEClnicalDementia2/24 (8%) Lacunar
35/149 (23%) Non-lacunar
Dong et al27Hospital Singapore300/239*3–6 monthsNP, MMSE, and MoCA§§Risk factorModerate MCI21/106 (20%) Lacunar
31/97 (33%) Non-lacunar
Tatemichi et al28Hospital USANot stated/2273 monthsNPClinicalMCI21/59 (36%) Lacunar
59/168 (35%) Non-lacunar
Tay et al29Hospital Singapore216/1699 daysMMSEClinicalNAMean MMSE
Non-lacunar (anterior circulation)18.2,
Lacunar 22.9
Mok et al30Hospital China86/753 months***MMSE and clinical dementia rating scaleImagingDementia10/75 (13%)
Mean MMSE: 24.8 lacunar, 27.7 healthy controls
Samuelsson et al31Hospital Sweden100/812 yearsMMSE and NP if impaired.ClinicalDementia8/81 (10%)
Anderson et al32Community AustraliaNot stated/301 yearNPClinicalMCI2/30 (7%)
Loeb et al33Hospital ItalyNot stated/108Up to 4 yearsMMSEClinicalDementia25/108 (23%)
Fure et al34Hospital Norway71/64‡‡2–7 daysNPRisk factorMCI41/71 (58%)
Barker-Collo et al35Community New Zealand357/3365 yearsNPClinicalCognition test results.No difference in mean test scores
Appelros et al36Community Sweden253/232*1 yearMMSERisk factorMean MMSE scoresMean MMSE
Non-lacunar 25.6, Lacunar 26.6
  • *Includes subjects with haemorrhagic stroke/transient ischaemic attack.

  • †Full neuropsychological (NP) testing.

  • ‡Mild cognitive impairment.

  • §14 haemorrhagic strokes included in these figures.

  • ¶Subtype reported only in patients who had a visible lesion on CT.

  • **Six subjects with specific cognitive impairment excluded.

  • ††Mini-Mental State Examination.

  • ‡‡Data reported on subjects who could not have full tests.

  • §§Calculated from reported OR.

  • ¶¶Calculated from χ2 statistic.

  • ***The 61 non-demented patients were followed up 2–3 years later; no information on outcome of those who did have dementia at 3 months.37

  • §§MoCA, Montreal Cognitive Assessment.