Table 4

Prognostic factors (positive, negative or no effect) in studies of functional motor symptoms

AuthorSymptomPositiveNegativeNo effect*
McKeon22TremorEarly diagnosisInitial diagnostic certainty
Jankovic14TremorPatient compliance with and confidence in a positive treatment outcomeprecipitating event, psychiatric comorbidityDuration, smoking, litigation, neurol/other comorbidity, family history, low social life perception, seeing other therapists, somatisation
Deuschl23TremorYoung age
Ibrahim12Fixed dystoniaComplex Regional Pain Syndrome at baseline, higher Hospital Anxiety and Depression Score (HADS) scaleAge, gender, duration, somatoform disorder at baseline
Munhoz25Mov disEarly diagnosis
Thomas15Mov disEarly diagnosis, younger age, confidence in positive outcome of treatment, strong physical health, positive perception of social life, anxietyGender, poor social life perception, history of abuse, litigation, dependence
Feinstein27Mov disSudden onsetlong duration prior to diagnosis; extent of psychiatric comorbidityAge, marital status, education, employment, litigation, type of movement disorder
Williams32Mov disage, gender, education, chronicity, type of movement disorder
Factor21Mov disEarly diagnosis
Stone19WeaknessSensory symptoms better than weaknessHigher age at onsetGender
Binzer34Weaknesshigh global functioning score (axis V)High Beck Hopelessness Scale, axis III diagnosis, personality disorder, cluster C personality score (anxious or fearful personality disorders), low global index functioning scoreAge, gender, degree of disability, educational status, axis I disorder, depression, illness behaviour, locus of control score, memories of childhood experience
Knutsson28WeaknessEarly diagnosis, short hospital stay
Crimlisk20MotorEarly diagnosis, change in marital state, affective disorder or schizophreniaPending litigation, receiving benefits at admissionAge, gender, family history of chronic illness, history of somatisation, psychiatric treatment, social class
Mace 29MotorEarly diagnosisAge, use of non-psychotropic medication, anxiety > depression, personality disorder, many GP/outpatient/hospital visits.Alternative consultations, questionnaires of mood, illness behaviour
Couprie30MotorEarly diagnosis, improvement during initial hospital stayAge, preceding life event
Ljungberg35MotorPersonality disorderAge, gender, IQ
  • Symptom ‘Mixed mov dis’; more than one type of movement disorder; ‘mixed motor’; mixture of hyperkinetic and movement disorder and weakness/paralysis.

  • *Includes factors which did not reach statistical significance.