TableĀ 2

Differential features between organic tics and PMDs resembling tics

Organic ticsPMDs resembling tics
Typical age at onsetChildrenYoung adults
Gender predominanceMaleFemale
Sudden onsetRareFrequent
Premonitory sensationCommonUncommon
Movements present during sleepCommonNot reported
Other disordersChorea minima*, attention deficit with hyperactivity, obsessive-compulsive disorder, impulsivityPseudoseizures; psychogenic tremor, dystonia, myoclonus, gait disorder, etc.; depression, anxiety, presence of psychological stress
Family history of TSCommonRare
Response to dopamine receptor antagonists or dopamine depletory drugsFrequent, but may be incompleteRare
  • *Piano playing movements, usually without pathological significance.

  • PMD, psychogenic movement disorder; TS, Tourette syndrome.