TableĀ 1

Clinical features of patients from this series

CaseGender/age of onset (years)Phenomenology of the movementsNoise production or vocalisationsVolitional
suppression of tic-like movements
Premonitory sensationAssociated MDs and other psychosomatic manifestationsPharmacological treatment and outcome*
1F/20Repetitive bilateral shoulder elevation with ipsilateral head inclinationNoNoRare (inner tension, non-localised)Pseudoseizures, right side body tremor, blurry visionLevetiracetam: partial and transitory improvement
2M/16Repetitive torticollis, retrocollis and left hemifacial contractionsSniffingNoNoPseudoseizuresRisperidone: no improvement
3F/22Repetitive, alternating, stereotyped back and forth shoulder movementsNoNoNoBizarre dystonic trunk movementsNone
4F/22Facial grimacing, nose, neck and hand twitching.
Piano playing movements
Humming and episodes of echolaliaNoRare (urge, localised to the moving body segment)Pseudoseizures, stuttering, dystonic postures, ballistic arm movementsHaloperidol, amantadine: no improvement
5M/23Repetitive left upper lip and submandibular muscle contractionsNoNoNoPsychogenic gait disorderClonidine: no improvement.
Risperidone: partial improvement
6F/42Tongue protrusion and complex stereotyped circular mouth movementsCoughPartialNoStereotypic arm movements only with walkingRisperidone, haloperidol and tetrabenazine: no improvement
7F/47Eye blinking with eye brown elevation, facial grimacingNoNoNoLeft torticollis, hand tremor, chorea, dystoniaL-DOPA, baclofen: no improvement
8M/66Facial grimacing, shoulder shruggingNoNoNoSevere right arm and leg tremor; left torticollis, left arm dystoniaBaclofen, BoNT injections: no improvement.
Tetrabenazine: worsened movements
9M/49Facial grimacing, shoulder shruggingNoNoNoHead and hand tremorPramipexole: no improvement
  • *Treatments were mostly administered in other centres.

  • BoNT, botulinum toxin; F, female; L-DOPA, L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine; M, male; MD, movement disorder.