Table 2

Baseline characteristics of the study patients with CSF measurements.

VariableCONTROL (n=22)*FTD (n=20)C9orf72 (n=2)GRN (n=3)p Value
Gender M/F—no. (%)13 (59)/9 (41)13 (65)/7 (35)2 (100)/0 (0)1 (33)/2 (67)0.490
Age—year (mean±SD)64.82±8.363.65±10.157.50±9.262.00±4.60.710
Age of onset of the disease—year (mean±SD)NA59.90±10.755.00±7.158.33±2.10.794
Disease duration year—(mean±SD)NA3.73±2.82.50±2.13.67±2.90.842
MMSE– Median (IQR)29 (28–29)22.5 (15.5–26.75)26–2725(15–30)<0.001†
GDS– Median (IQR)1 (1–1)4 (4–5)3–44(4–5)<0.001†
CSF biomarkers
 Aβ 1–42—pg/mL (mean±SD)639±248548±204577.9±14640±1930.609
 P-tau—pg/mL (mean±SD)48.8±1338.8±1648.5±338.2±30.122
 T-tau—pg/mL (mean±SD)238±80225±94228±74231±400.968
CSF pTDP-43 (relative units)
 Median1.2671.1831.7811.7490.028†
 (IQR)(1.12–1.60)(1.01–1–40)NANA
CSF total TDP-43 (relative units)
 Median0.5690.2900.6010.8250.466
 (IQR)(0.067–0.960)(0.000–0.861)NANA
  • Data are expressed as mean±SD, number of patients (per cent) or median (IQR), as appropriate. CSF pTDP-43 and total TDP-43 levels are expressed as values relative to an internal control sample. Probability values (p) denote differences between control, FTD, C9orf72 and GRN patient groups, except for ‘age of onset of the disease’ and ‘disease duration’ where control group is excluded of the analysis. χ2 statistics were used for categorical variables. One-way ANOVA was used to compare continuous variables between groups. MMSE, GDS, pTDP-43 and total TDP-43 levels were evaluated by non-parametric statistical analysis (Kruskal-Wallis).

  • *Total TDP-43 levels were measured in 16 control subjects.

  • †Significant difference (p<0.05).

  • NA, not applicable.

  • ANOVA, analysis of variance; CSF, cerebrospinal fluid; FTD, frontotemporal dementia; GDS, Global Deterioration Scale; MMSE, Mini-Mental State Examination; IQR, interquartile range; NA, not applicable.