Table 2

Clinical and paraclinical features of 15 antibody-positive patients

DemographicsReportedAbPresentationCSFMRIDiagnosis at 1-year follow-upOutcome at 1-year follow-up
6 years female EgyptianONMOGBilateral visual lossAcellular
OCB negative
Bilateral signal change optic nerve more predominant on the right.UnchangedFull recovery
15 years female BangladeshiCISMOGAsymmetric weakness, sensory symptomsCell count*
OCB positive
Multiple periventricular, midbrain and juxtacortical lesions with three short-segment spinal lesions.Radiological MSEDSS 1
6 years male CaucasianADEMMOGEncephalopathy, ataxia, headache, fatigueWCC 23
OCB negative
Multiple bilateral T2 and FLAIR signal abnormalities in white matter, thalami, dentate nuclei, corpus callosum, midbrain and pons. Two-segment cervical cord lesion.UnchangedFull recovery
13 years female CaucasianTMMOGMyelopathy with sphincter disturbanceNot doneMultiple bilateral T2 and FLAIR signal abnormalities in the white matter and brainstem. Extensive cord lesion with contrast enhancement.UnchangedEDSS 7
12 years female CaucasianONMOGUnilateral reduced visual acuityAcellular
OCB negative
Normal MRI brainUnchangedEDSS 1
15 years female CaucasianCISMOGHemiparesis, hemisensory symptoms, sphincter dysfunction16 WCC
OCB*
Juxtacortical, deep white, periventricular, brainstem lesions. Spinal imaging not done.RRMSEDSS 1
3 years male CaucasianADEMMOGEncephalopathy, gait ataxia, dysarthria and dysphagiaAcellular
OCB negative
Multiple cortical, juxtacortical and thalamic signal abnormalities with restricted diffusion.UnchangedEDSS 1
Symptomatic seizures
6 years male AfricanONAQP4Visual failureNot doneBrain and spine normalUnchangedEDSS 3
6 years female NepaleseNMOAQP4Bilateral visual failure, myelopathy and sphincter disturbanceAcellular OCB negativeFronto-parietal deep and subcortical white matter lesions. Midcervical to midthoracic spinal lesion.UnchangedSevere visual failure
EDSS 4
15 years female CaucasianNMOAQP4Unilateral visual failure, L'Hermitte's syndromeAcellular OCB negativeLong spinal lesion extending from T1 to T11. Normal brainUnchangedEDSS 4
2 years female CaucasianADEMNMDAREncephalopathy, unilateral weakness, ataxia and seizuresWCC 56
OCB positive
Multiple juxtacortical white matter and cortical lesionUnchangedEDSS 1
Symptomatic seizures
9 years male CaucasianONNMDAR
VGKC
Bilateral visual lossNot doneNormal MRI brainUnchangedFull recovery
14 years female CaucasianCISVGKCParesis and sensory both arms and or legs, vertigo, fatigueAcellular
OCB positive
Multiple periventricular and juxtacortical lesions with 1 short spinal lesion.RRMSEDSS 3
6 years male CaucasianADEMVGKCEncephalopathy with seizuresAcellular OCB negativeIncreased signal intensity in the lentiform nuclei bilaterally.UnchangedFull recovery
15 years male CaucasianTMGlyRLeg weakness and sensory lossNot doneShort cervical cord lesion. Additional deep white matter lesions seen on cranial imaging.UnchangedEDSS 1
  • *Missing data.

  • CSF, cerebrospinal fluid; EDSS, expanded disability status scale; FLAIR, fluid attenuated inversion recovery; IVIG, intravenous immunoglobulins; IVMP, intravenous methylprednisolone; MOG, myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein; NMDAR, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate receptor; OCB, oligoclonal bands; PICU, paediatric intensive care; VGKC, voltage-gated potassium channel; WCC, white cell count; Neurological syndromes were classified to: ADEM, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis; CIS, clinically isolated syndrome; ON, optic neuritis; MS, multiple sclerosis; RRMS, relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis and TM transverse myelitis.