Table 1

Clinical features and individual verbal memory scores at Assessments 1 and 2 for the 19 VGKC-LE patients

Patient numberSex, ageClinical features*MRI at presentationAntibody titre at Ax1 (pmol/L)Antibody typeTreatmentSymptom onset to Ax1/treatment (days)Ax1 to Ax2 (days)Antibody titre at Ax2 (pmol/L)Verbal memory at Ax1 (z-score)Verbal memory at Ax2 (z-score)
1M, 64M, C, D, P, SzN2859Pr, IVIg377/40013420−1.69−1.79
2M, 59M, C, Co, SzN925Pr, PEX26/1191175−2.01
3F, 68M, C, SzN3802Pr, IVIg190/18814150−0.01
4M, 73M, C, SzBilateral MTL swelling1166Pr, IVIg16/349930−2.38−1.17
5M, 66M, C, Di, Sz5093LGI1Pr, IVIg109/–84132−2.34−2.09
6M, 76M, C, P1071LGI1Pr, IVIg87/81182131−3.93−1.57
7M, 62M, C, Co, NMT, Sw, SzBilateral MTL swelling3000LGI1Pr, IVIg, PEX111/1373570−2.87−1.25
8F, 75M, A, C, SwL HC high signal6000LGI1PEX281/408691237−1.53−0.90
9F, 65M, C, Co, D4791LGI1IVMP, Pr99/90238−2.34−2.66
10F, 70M, C, SzL HC swelling801IVMP, Pr46/30152−2.34−1.45
11F, 51M, C, H, PN177†Pr, IVIg343/31491137−1.69−0.10
12F, 71C, A, D, Sz769IVMP, PEX248/150‡2250−0.67−0.06
13F, 18M, H, Sz193†IVMP103/–108200.09−0.20
14M, 58M, NMTN1798CASPR2Pr, IVIg250/254177585−2.41−1.73
15M, 32M, C, DyL HC swelling604Pr107/1282590−0.71−0.87
16M, 47M, A, C, P336LGI1IVMP235/224257118−0.88−0.47
17M, 63M, H, C, P779LGI1Pr352/339290121−1.75−1.84
18M, 61M, C503LGI1Pr245/–170146−1.94−0.55
19M, 63M, C, PL HC swelling587LGI1Pr, IVIg73/78140113−2.301.32
  • *Symptoms documented in the medical notes by the physician assessing the patient at presentation.

  • †Cases 11 and 13 subsequently developed Ab titres of 661 and 606 pmol/L, respectively.

  • ‡Immunotherapy was complicated by sepsis and was put on hold during the patient's recovery.

  • –, item not available, present or tested; A, agitation; Ax1, Assessment 1; Ax2, Assessment 2; C, confusion; CASPR2, Contactin-associated protein-like 2; Co, confabulation; D, delusions; Di, disinhibition; Dy, dysphasia; H, hallucinations; HC, hippocampus; IVIg, intravenous immunoglobulin; IVMP, intravenous methylprednisolone; L, left; LGI1, leucine-rich glioma inactivated 1; M, memory impairment; MTL, medial temporal lobes; N, normal; NMT, neuromyotonia; P, partial seizures; PEX, plasma exchange; Pr, prednisolone; Sw, sweating; Sz, seizures; VGKC-LE, Limbic encephalitis with antibodies to the voltage-gated potassium channel complex.