Healthy controls | Early RRMS | Group effect | |
---|---|---|---|
p Value | |||
Demographical data | |||
N (the female to male ratio) | 25 (17:8) | 25 (22:3) | |
Mean age, years (SD) | 35.2 (10.3) | 37.2 (8.6) | |
Mean education years, years (SD) | 13.8 (2.1) | 13.5 (2.7) | |
Mean premorbid-IQ, WTAR (SD) | 108.2 (6.1) | 105.0 (9.2) | |
Clinical data | |||
Mean disease duration, years (SD) | – | 2.4 (1.5) | |
Median EDSS (range) | – | 1.5 (0–4.5) | |
Mean MSSS (SD) | – | 3.5 (1.8) | |
Cognitive data | |||
Mean SDMT (SD) | 0.59 (0.8) | 0.40 (0.9) | 0.51 |
Mean PASAT (SD) | 0.25 (0.90) | 0.16 (0.99) | 0.79 |
Mean MSFC (SD) | 0.7 (0.4) | 0.4 (0.6) | 0.39 |
Mean MoCA (SD) | 28.8 (1.6) | 25.7 (1.5) | 0.77 |
Mean executive function score (SD) | 0.9 (0.5) | 0.7 (0.6) | 0.32 |
Mean memory score (SD) | 1.2 (0.5) | 0.7 (0.6) | 0.05* |
Mean attention and working memory score (SD) | 0.20 (0.65) | 0.03 (0.68) | 0.99 |
Mean visuospatial function score (SD) | 0.6 (0.4) | 0.6 (0.3) | 0.71 |
Mean composite Z scores (SD) | 0.7 (0.4) | 0.5 (0.2) | 0.15 |
Imaging data | |||
Median T2 lesion load, mL (mean; SD)) | – | 6.5 (16.3; 22) | |
Median T1 lesion load, mL (mean; SD)) | – | 0.3 (1.4; 1.8) | |
Mean ICV, cm^{3} (SD) | 1459.3 (149.7) | 1385.6 (150.2) | 0.58 |
Mean relative GM volume, % (SD) | 45.7 (2.0) | 46.1 (3.3) | 0.38 |
Mean relative WM volume, % (SD) | 38.8 (1.5) | 37.3 (1.5) | 0.01** |
Mean GM perfusion, mL/100 g/min (SD) | 54.4 (7.6) | 50.6 (5.8) | 0.04* |
Mean WM perfusion, mL/100 g/min (SD) | 31.2 (4.9) | 28.9 (3.0) | 0.01** |
EDSS, Expanded Disability Status score; GM, grey matter; ICV, intracranial volume; MoCA, Montreal Cognitive Assessment; MS, multiple sclerosis; MSFC, MS Functional Composite; MSSS, MS severity score; PASAT, Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test; RRMS, relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis; SDMT, Symbol Digit Modality Test; WM, white matter; WTAR, Wechsler Test of Adult Reading; Z score, total score calculated from cognitive scores covering the four domains of executive, memory, attention and visuospatial functions.
*p<0.05; **p<0.01.