Table 1

Table description of demographical, neurological, neuropsychological and global imaging details of each group (healthy controls vs early RRMS)

Healthy controlsEarly RRMSGroup effect
p Value
Demographical data
N (the female  to  male ratio)25 (17:8)25 (22:3)
Mean age, years (SD)35.2 (10.3)37.2 (8.6)
Mean education years, years (SD)13.8 (2.1)13.5 (2.7)
Mean premorbid-IQ, WTAR (SD)108.2 (6.1)105.0 (9.2)
Clinical data
Mean disease duration, years (SD)2.4 (1.5)
Median EDSS (range)1.5 (0–4.5)
Mean MSSS (SD)3.5 (1.8)
Cognitive data
Mean SDMT (SD)0.59 (0.8)0.40 (0.9)0.51
Mean PASAT (SD)0.25 (0.90)0.16 (0.99)0.79
Mean MSFC (SD)0.7 (0.4)0.4 (0.6)0.39
Mean MoCA (SD)28.8 (1.6)25.7 (1.5)0.77
Mean executive function score (SD)0.9 (0.5)0.7 (0.6)0.32
Mean memory score (SD)1.2 (0.5)0.7 (0.6)0.05*
Mean attention and working memory score (SD)0.20 (0.65)0.03 (0.68)0.99
Mean visuospatial function score (SD)0.6 (0.4)0.6 (0.3)0.71
Mean composite Z scores (SD)0.7 (0.4)0.5 (0.2)0.15
Imaging data
Median T2 lesion load, mL (mean; SD))6.5 (16.3; 22)
Median T1 lesion load, mL (mean; SD))0.3 (1.4; 1.8)
Mean ICV, cm3 (SD)1459.3 (149.7)1385.6 (150.2)0.58
Mean relative GM volume, % (SD)45.7 (2.0)46.1 (3.3)0.38
Mean relative WM volume, % (SD)38.8 (1.5)37.3 (1.5)0.01**
Mean GM perfusion, mL/100 g/min (SD)54.4 (7.6)50.6 (5.8)0.04*
Mean WM perfusion, mL/100 g/min (SD)31.2 (4.9)28.9 (3.0)0.01**
  • EDSS, Expanded Disability Status score; GM, grey matter; ICV, intracranial volume; MoCA, Montreal Cognitive Assessment; MS, multiple sclerosis; MSFC, MS Functional Composite; MSSS, MS severity score; PASAT, Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test; RRMS, relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis; SDMT, Symbol Digit Modality Test; WM, white matter; WTAR, Wechsler Test of Adult Reading; Z score, total score calculated from cognitive scores covering the four domains of executive, memory, attention and visuospatial functions.

  • *p<0.05; **p<0.01.