Table 1

Comparison of antibody-positive and antibody-negative patients enrolled into the UK Paediatric-Acquired Demyelination Surveillance Study

Antibody- positive (n=15)Antibody- negative (n=50)Not tested (n=60)
Age in years (IQR)8.9 (6.4–14.8)11.9 (6.8–13.9)9.4 (5.7–13.7)
Sex (male : female)6:924:2631:29
Ethnicity (Caucasian: other)11:439:1151:9
Diagnosis
 ADEM* (%)4 (27)10 (20)26 (43)
 CIS-other (%)2 (13.3)9 (18)16 (26)
 ON (%)4 (27)16 (32)11 (18)
 TM (%)3 (20)15 (30)7 (11)
 NMO (%)2 (13)0 (0)0 (0)
Relapse total (%)4/15 (27)13/40 (33)7/35 (20)
 Non-MS relapse (%)0 (0)3 (6)1 (2)
 MS relapse-clinical (%)2 (13)10 (20)6 (10)
 MS radiological (%)1 (7)2 (4)2 (3)
 NMO (%)2 (13)0 (0)0 (0)
Abnormal brain MRI- at onset (%)10/15 (67)39/50 (78)45/58 (78)
Abnormal CSF† (%)
(Intrathecal bands) (%)
6/11 (45)
(3/8; 38)
28/46 (43)
(11/37; 30)
30/45 (67)
(10/29; 34)
  • Description of all patients enrolled into the UK Paediatric-Acquired Demyelination Surveillance Study (spectrum of CNS inflammatory demyelination as classified by the expert panel) and comparison of antibody-positive and antibody-negative. Additionally, we compared the tested group with the patients where sera were unavailable for antibody testing.

  • *Patients with ADEM presentation were less likely to have serum sent for antibody testing compared with CIS (TM, ON and other).

  • †Abnormal CSF was defined as WCC≥10, positive OCB or protein >0.4g/L.

  • CSF, cerebral spinal fluid; OCB, oligoclonal bands; WCC, white cell count; Demyelinating phenotypes were classified to: ADEM, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis; CIS, clinically isolated syndrome; ON, optic neuritis; MS, multiple sclerosis; NMO, neuromyelitis optica; TM, transverse myelitis.