Table 3

Laboratory, neuroimaging, and pathological findings in 159 hypertrophic pachymeningitis cases

Laboratory findingsn/N (%)Neuroimagingn/N (%)
BloodMRI
 ESR elevation78/104 (75.0) Thickening of the cranial dura mater141/156 (90.4)
 WBC increase63/146 (43.2) Gd enhancement of cranial dura124/139 (89.2)
 CRP elevation110/149 (73.8) Thickening of the spinal dura mater21/54 (38.9)
 ANA elevation20/118 (16.9) Gd enhancement of spinal dura17/20 (85.0)
 MPO-ANCA positivity33/119 (27.7)Gallium scintigraphy
 PR3-ANCA positivity14/111 (12.6) Increased uptake22/50 (44.0)
 IgG4 elevation7/27 (25.9)SPECT
 STS2/122 (1.6) Hypoperfusion7/29 (24.1)
 Anti-HTLV-1 Ab1/50 (2.0) Hyperperfusion3/29 (10.3)
 ADA elevation3/28 (10.7)PET
 ACE elevation1/56 (1.8) Positive accumulation2/17 (11.8)
CSFPathological findings of dura matern/N (%)
 Pleocytosis71/116 (61.2) Fibrosis43/52 (82.7)
 Protein elevation115/119 (99.6) Infiltration of inflammatory cells47/52 (90.4)
 TPLA positivity0/7 (0.0) Angiitis4/52 (7.7)
 ADA elevation2/22 (9.1) Granuloma15/52 (28.8)
 Necrosis8/52 (15.4)
 Oedema5/52 (9.6)
 IgG4-positive plasma cells11/42 (26.2)
  • Ab, antibody; ADA, adenosine deaminase; ANA, antinuclear antibody; CRP, C-reactive protein; CSF, cerebrospinal fluid; ESR, erythrocyte sedimentation rate; Gd, gadolinium; HTLV-1, human T-lymphotrophic virus type I; MPO-ANCA, myeloperoxidase-antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies; PET, positron emission tomography; PR3-ANCA, proteinase-3-antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies; SPECT, single photon emission CT; STS, serologic test for syphilis; TPLA, treponema pallidum latex agglutination; WBC, white blood cells.