Table 2

CSF α-synuclein in parkinsonian disorders

Research groupsParticipantsAnalyteMethodMain findings
Van Dijk et al46PD n=53, HC n=50t-α-Syn
t-α-Syn/t-protein ratio
TR-FRETDecrease in both t-α-Syn+t-α-Syn/t-protein ratio levels in PD vs HC
Kang et al 201321PD n=39 (drug-naïve patients), HC n=63t-α-SynELISADecrease in PD vs HC
Wennström et al47PD n=38, PDD n=22, DLB n=33, AD n=46, HC n=52t-α-SynELISADecrease in PDD > PD > DLB vs AD+HC
Mollenhauer et al48PD n=78 (de novo, drug-naïve patients), HC n=48t-α-SynELISA (3rd generation)Decrease in de novo PD patients vs HC
Hall et al26PD n=90, PDD n=33, DLB n=70, PSP n=45, CBD n=12, MSA n=48, AD n=48, controls n=107t-α-SynBead-based multi-analyte assay (Luminex)Modest decrease in AD > DLB+PDD > PD+MSA vs controls, AD and PSP
Aerts et al43PD n=58, MSA n=47, DLB n=3, VaD n=22, PSP n=10, CBD n=2t-α-SynELISANo difference between groups
Tateno et al49PD n=11, DLB n=6, MSA n=11, AD n=9, controls n=11t-α-SynELISA
  • Decrease in PD, DLB, MSA vs AD+ controls

  • No difference among PD, DLB, MSA

Wang et al50Discovery cohort:
PD n=83, MSA n=14, PSD n=30, AD n=25, HC n=51
Validation cohort:
PD n=109, MSA n=20, PSP n=22, AD n=50, HC n=71
p-α-Syn:t-α-Syn ratio
Bead-based multi-analyte assay (Luminex)
  • t-α-Syn decrease in PD+MSA vs controls

  • Increase α-Syn ratio in MSA vs PSP

  • Increase α-Syn ratio in PD vs controls and PSP

Park et al58PD (drug-naïve) n=23, controls n=18t-α-Syn
Dual ELISA method for simultaneous measurement of t-and o-α-Syn
  • t-α-Syn: no difference

  • o-α-Syn: increase in PD

Mollenhauer et al54Training cohort: PD n=51, DLB n=55, MSA n=29, AD n=62, controls n=76
Validation cohort: PD n=273, DLB n=66, PSP n=8, MSA n=15, NPH n=22, controls n=23
t-α-SynELISA (1st and 2nd generation)
  • Decrease in PD, DLB, MSA vs AD, NPH, PSP and controls

  • High degree of concordance in t-α-Syn levels between PD+MSA

Parnetti et al27PD n=38, DLB n=32, AD n=48, FTD n=31, controls n=32t-α-Syn
t-α-Syn/t-tau ratio
  • t-α-Syn decrease in all diseased groups (especially DLB/FTD)

  • Ratio: decrease in PD vs all other diseased groups

Shi et al22Discovery cohort: PD n=126, MSA n=32
AD n=50, controls n=137
Validation cohort :PD n=83
t-α-SynBead-based multi-analyte assay (Luminex)Decrease in PD vs controls and AD
Tokuda et al57First cohort (all analytes):
PD n=32, controls n=28
Second cohort (o-asyn):
PD n=25, AD n=35, PSP n=18, controls n=43
o-α-Syn:t-α-Syn ratio
  • t-α-Syn: trend towards decrease in PD

  • o-α-Syn+ratio increase in PD

Hong et al52PD n=117, AD n=50, HC n=132t-α-SynBead-based multi-analyte assay (Luminex)Decrease in PD vs AD and controls (after omitting samples with high haemoglobin concentration)
Noguchi- Shinohara et al44DLB n=16, AD n=21t-α-SynELISANo difference
Spies et al45DLB n=40, AD n=131, VaD n=28, FTD n=39t-α-SynELISANo difference
Ohrfelt et al30PD n=15, DLB n=15, AD n=66, controls n=55t-α-SynELISADecrease in AD, no difference in parkinsonian groups
Mollenhauer et al53PD n=8, DLB n=38, AD n=13, CJD n=8, controls n=13t-α-SynELISA (1st and 2nd generation)Marginal decrease in LBD and PD vs all other groups
Tokuda et al55PD n=38, controls n=38t-α-SynELISADecrease in PD vs controls
  • AD, Alzheimer's disease; CBD, corticobasal degeneration; CJD, Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease; CSF, cerebrospinal fluid; DLB, dementia with Lewy bodies; FTD, frontotemporal dementia; HC, healthy controls; MSA, multiple system atrophy; NPH, normal pressure hydrocephalus; PD, Parkinson's disease; PDD, Parkinson's disease dementia; PSP, progressive supranuclear palsy; TR-FRET, time-resolved Förster's resonance energy transfer; VaD, vascular dementia.