Table 4

CSF biomarkers for oxidative stress, inflammation and energy failure in parkinsonian disorders

Research groupsParticipantsAnalyteMethodMain findings
Herbert et al73PD n=43, MSA n=23, controls n=30DJ-1ELISA
  • Increase in MSA>PD

  • Significant difference in MSA vs PD, MSA vs controls and PD vs controls

Constantinescu et al78PD n=6, MSA n=13, PSP n=18, CBD n=6, HC n=18UrateEnzymatic method on a modular systemNo difference
Wennstrom et al47PD n=38, PDD n=22, DLB n=33, AD n=46, HC n=52NeurosinELISA
  • Lowest levels in DLB, but no difference between synucleinopathies

  • When pooled, synucleinopathies decrease levels vs AD+HC

Goldstein et al82PD n=34, MSA n=54, PAF n=20, HC n=38Dihydroxyphenylatic acid (DOPAC)Batch alumina extraction followed by liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection
  • Decrease in PD, MSA and to a lesser degree PAF vs HC

  • No difference between synucleinopathy groups

Salvesen et al72PD n=30, DLB n=17, MSA n=14, PSP n=19DJ-1ELISANo difference among groups
Maetzler et al77PD n=55, PDD n=20, DLB n=20, controls n=76Uric acidADVIA analyser+photometric methodsIncrease in PD vs DLB
Shi et al22Discovery cohort:
PD n=126, MSA n=32
AD n=50, controls n=137
Validation cohort:
PD n=83
Bead-based multi-analyte assay (Luminex)
  • DJ1: decrease in MSA+PD vs controls+AD

  • Fractalkine: decrease in MSA vs PD, AD+controls

LeWitt et al81PD n=217 (samples collected ×2 occasions)
HC n=26
Homovallinic acid/xanthine ratioGas chromatography-mass spectrometry
  • Increased ratio in PD vs HC

  • Ratio increased further in PD specimens collected up to 2 years later

Wang et al79PD n=86, MSA n=20, AD n=38 HC n=91Complement C3/factor H (FH)Bead-based multi-analyte assay (Luminex)
  • C3: decrease in MSA vs PD+HC; increase in AD vs all other groups

  • FH: increase in AD vs PD+HC

  • C3/FH ratio: decrease in MSA vs all other groups

Maetzler et al80PD n=38, PDD n=20, DLB n=21 m, controls n=23NeprilysinFluorometric assayDecrease in DLB+PDD vs PD+ controls
Hong et al52PD n=117, AD n=50, HC n=132DJ-1Bead-based multi-analyte assay (Luminex)
  • Decreased levels in PD vs Controls and AD

  • No difference between AD+ controls

  • AD, Alzheimer's disease; CBD, corticobasal degeneration; CSF, cerebrospinal fluid; DLB, dementia with Lewy bodies; HC, healthy controls; MSA, multiple system atrophy; PAF, pure autonomic failure; PD, Parkinson's disease; PDD, Parkinson's disease dementia; PSP, progressive supranuclear palsy.