TableĀ 3

Types of major congenital malformation with each AED

NTDFacial cleftCardiacHypospadias/GUTGITSkeletalOtherTotal
Valproate (total 1220)13 (1.1%)13 (1.1%)14 (1.1%)15 (1.2%)7 (0.6%)10 (0.8%)10 (0.8%)82
Carbamazepine (total 1657)4 (0.2%)4 (0.2%)14 (0.8%)5 (0.3%)5 (0.3%)4 (0.2%)7 (0.4%)43
Lamotrigine (total 2098)2 (0.1%)2 (0.1%)9 (0.4%)10 (0.5%)8 (0.4%)3 (0.1%)15 (0.7%)49
  • AED, antiepileptic drug; GIT, gastrointestinal tract defect; GUT, genitourinary tract defect; NTD, neural tube defect.