Table 1

List of sensory tricks according to type of dystonia

DystoniaSensory trick
Cervical dystoniaTouching specific parts of the face, cheek, chin, occipital region, temple, forehead, nose, mastoid, occipital region, back of neck.7 11 12–18
Raising the arm and holding the finger near the target region without touching the face, or prior to touching the face.11 14 15
Visual fixation at a specific target, focusing on stationary objects while walking, looking at oneself in the mirror.18 19
 Forcible tricks with counterpressure to the cheek, temple, chin, back of head, mastoid, forehead.2 7 17
Resting the back of the head or neck, bending the trunk forward, resting the back or shoulder, yawning, wearing a collar/a scarf, leaning the elbows on the armrest.7 14
Imagining or merely thinking about performing a sensory trick.12 15
Apraxia of eyelid opening, blepharospasmTight goggles or spectacles, Lundie Loops.17 20 21
Device inserted in glasses to mimic touch to lateral eyelid.22
Touching/pulling eyelids, tape on eyebrow.23 24
Touching specific parts of the face (forehead, nose, side of eyelids, chin).17 22 24–26
Pushing back of the head.17
Massaging cheek bones, eyelid, forehead.17
Closing the jaw, chewing gum.12 17
Touching bitemporal skin beside eyes.27
Covering the eye.22
Picking teeth.12
Wearing a cap or turban.26
Meige syndromeSleeping/relaxing, talking, singing/humming, pulling on upper eyelid, pinching back of the neck, yawning, belching, sucking in or blowing out cheeks, drinking cold and/or alcoholic beverage.12 28
Lower cranial dystonia, oromandibular dystoniaToothpick in mouth, holding object clenched between the teeth, dental splint, touching lip, touching lower corner of face.29
‘Mandibular sensory trick device’,29
Touching tongue to palate, biting lips, swallowing, pulling face up, bending neck forward.30 31
Chewing gum, sucking.30–33
Kissing, whistling.34
Pen/cigarette/tongue depressor in mouth.33 34
Biting food/plastic between left upper and lower molars→ dental prosthesis device 3 mm above molar.3
Smiling, singing, talking, thinking about talking.12
Biting piece of cotton or plastic.35 36
Dental splint.36
Playing with larger mouthpieces.35 37
5 min ice massage of facial muscles.37
Laryngeal dystoniaGrimacing, laughing, loud background noise.38
Writer's cramp5 min immersion in cold water.39
Shifting pen holding, holding pen between index finger and thumb vertically, writing with a closed fist.40
Use pens of different sizes and calibres, using chalk and blackboard or painting.40
Touching specific part of the contralateral normal hand to a specific part of the dystonic hand.41 42
Runner's dystoniaHolding hands over head, run in a clockwise direction, mental imagery of running in a clockwise direction.43
Beach walking, applying pressure with hand at hip.5
CamptocormiaLow-slung backpack, using wheeled walker, pressing back against hallway.44
DYT1 dystoniaPiano playing.45