Table 1

Demographic and baseline and 3-year follow-up clinical characteristics of patients and controls*

Patients (n=183)†Controls (n=97)†p Value
Age (years)71.91±9.0771.07±6.070.36
Females74 (40.4)49 (50.5)0.10
Education (years)10.10±2.6611.75±3.31<0.001
Baseline clinical test scores
Follow-up clinical test scores
Coronary artery disease55 (31.4)13 (14.0)0.002
Hypertension107 (59.4)33 (35.5)<0.001
Diabetes29 (16.2)7 (7.6)0.04
Atrial fibrillation44 (24.9)2 (2.2)<0.001
Hypercholesterolaemia68 (40.2)21 (24.7)0.01
Smoker (past or current)108 (62.8)40 (43.5)0.004
Alcohol abuse11 (6.1)6 (6.7)0.85
  • *Data are presented as either mean±SD or n (%).

  • †Maximum n, with percentages for participants with valid data.

  • ADL, Activities of Daily Living; IADL, Instrumental Activities of Daily Living; IQCODE, Informant Questionnaire for Cognitive Decline in the Elderly; MMSE, Mini Mental State Examination.