Table 1

Characteristics of the study cohort

Total sample (#350)Patients with relapses after delivery (#148)Patients without relapses after delivery (#202)p Value
Age at conception (mean, SD, years)*31.8 (4.7)31.5 (5.0)32.1 (4.5)0.242
Age at onset (mean, SD, years)*24.7 (5.8)24.8 (6.1)24.7 (5.7)0.948
Disease duration at conception (mean, SD, years)*7.2 (4.8)6.9 (5.0)7.4 (4.7)0.356
EDSS at conception (median, IQR)†1.5 (1.0–2.0)1.5 (1.0–2.0)1.5 (1.0–1.5)0.007
Treated with DMDs before pregnancy (#, %)‡174 (49.7)70 (47.3)104 (51.5)0.339
Smoking during pregnancy (#, %)‡25 (7.1)12 (8.1)13 (6.4)0.548
Relapses in the year prior to pregnancy (median, IQR)†0 (0–1)0 (0–1)0 (0–0)<0.001
Relapses during pregnancy (median, IQR)†0 (0–0)0 (0–0)0 (0–0)0.001
Relapses in the year after delivery (median, IQR)†0 (0–1)
Exclusive breast feeding (#, %)‡121 (34.6)43 (29.1)78 (38.6)0.071
Early DMDs introduction (#, %)‡74 (21.1)21 (14.2)53 (26.2)0.006
  • No patient reported alcohol or substance exposure.

  • DMD therapy before pregnancy: 30 subcutaneous interferon β-1b; 55 intramuscular interferon β-1a; 73 subcutaneous interferon β-1a; 16 glatiramer acetate.

  • *Student t test.

  • †Mann–Whitney U test.

  • ‡Pearson's χ2 test.

  • DMDs, disease modifying drugs; EDSS, Expanded Disability Status Scale.