Table 4

Changes in MRI characteristics between baseline and 5-year and 10-year follow-up for the group followed over 10 years

5-year follow-up split by disability progressionCohen's dp Value10-year follow-up split by disability progressionCohen's dp Value
Yes (n=18)No (n=32)Yes (n=25)No (n=25)
T2 lesion volume2.15 (7.03)2.07 (6.49)0.01ns4.05 (8.79)4.87 (7.03)0.10ns
T1 lesion volume1.84 (3.98)9300.03ns1.53 (3.73)1.14 (3.74)0.10ns
Whole brain volume−3.24 (2.21)−1.92 (1.26)0.73*−5.54 (2.69)−3.73 (1.88)0.78**
Grey matter volume−2.60 (3.04)−2.41 (2.67)0.07ns−4.96 (3.23)−5.14 (3.55)0.05ns
White matter volume−1.45 (2.35)−1.45 (2.81)0ns−0.711 (2.69)−0.73 (4.30)0ns
Lateral ventricular volume15.60 (15.67)12.74 (13.29)0.20ns28.16 (22.41)22.27 (48.96)0.15ns
Cortical volume−2.70 (2.75)−1.89 (1.95)0.34ns−4.00 (3.24)−3.21 (2.97)0.25ns
Total SDGM volume−5.33 (4.97)−2.74 (3.52)0.60ns−7.28 (7.34)−5.07 (4.31)0.37ns
Subcortical deep grey matter structures
T2 lesion SDGM volume3.08 (375.6)−12.33 (372.7)0ns−2.50 (306.8)−25.63 (213.4)0ns
T1 lesion SDGM volume12.67 (133.3)8.34 (73.8)0.04ns7.75 (109.6)−3.83 (89)0.04ns
Caudate−5.20 (5.12)−2.88 (4.98)0.46ns−6.69 (6.62)−7.58 (5.84)0.14ns
Putamen−8.10 (7.06)−3.78 (6.04)0.66**−11.17 (13.12)−5.91 (5.87)0.52ns
Globus pallidus−5.06 (7.83)−0.80 (5.33)0.64**−6.51 (11.15)−2.91 (6.38)0.40ns
Thalamus−4.23 (4.63)−2.72 (3.58)0.36ns−5.83 (5.94)−4.33 (4.41)0.29ns
Hippocampus−3.06 (6.95)−2.20 (4.84)0.14ns−6.44 (9.31)−4.69 (4.44)0.24ns
Amygdala−4.32 (10.90)−0.24 (5.71)0.47ns−2.07 (9.88)−1.23 (7.38)0.10ns
Accumbens−12.77 (19.12)−9.75 (13.10)0.18ns−14.34 (18.96)−13.07 (12.39)0.08ns
  • Disability progression was measured using the Expanded Disability Status Scale. All brain volume changes are expressed in percentage change and SDs. Lesion volume changes are expressed in absolute changes and SDs in millilitres.

  • The differences between the disability progressing and non-progressing groups were calculated using Student t test and Mann–Whitney rank sum test, as appropriate.

  • **Significant at p<0.01.

  • * Trend at p<0.05.

  • abs change, absolute change; DGM, deep grey matter.