Table 1

Demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with and without ICBs before and after STN DBS

Gender (female/male)4/917/28
Age at PD onset40.9 (±7.8)44.9 (±7.5)
Age at surgery52.9 (±6.3)56.3 (±7.3)
Disease duration at surgery12 (±4.6)11.3 (±4.1)
UPDRS motor score at baseline (practically defined off condition)39.6 (±17.1)45 (±16.6)
UPDRS motor score at 3-year follow-up (practically defined off condition and stimulation turned on)25.3 (±14.2)*19.7 (11.4)*
Levodopa (LEDD mg) before surgery838.2 (±689.2)837.4 (±494.2)
Levodopa (LEDD mg) at 3-year follow-up508.8 (±401.2)†437.6 (±381.1)*
DAA (LEDD mg) before surgery473.1 (±276.6)‡232.9 (±188.6)
DAA (LEDD mg) at 3-year follow-up185.4 (±156.7)*210.3 (±188.6)
Amantadine (LEDD mg) before surgery69.2 (±126.7)23.3 (±63.9)
Amantadine (LEDD mg) at 3-year follow-up46.2 (±87.7)38.4 (±83)
MAOIs (LEDD mg) before surgery19.2 (±38.4)23.3 (±63.9)
MAOIs (LEDD mg) at 3-year follow-up23.1 (±43.9)28.9 (±101.9)
Total LEDD before surgery1399.7 (±677)1114.5 (±529.1)
Total LEDD at 3-year follow-up763.4 (±449.1)*715.1 (±432)*
TEED (µJ)180 (±67.1)221 (±83.3)
  • Continuous variables are expressed as mean (±SD), dichotomous variables as ratio.

  • The within-participants comparisons were made by Wilcoxon signed rank test. The between-participants comparisons were made by Mann-Whitney test for quantitative data and by χ2 test for categorical data.

  • *Significant difference in within-participants confrontation.

  • †Trend towards a difference in within-participants confrontation.

  • ‡Significant differences in between-participants confrontation.

  • DAA, dopamine agonist; DBS, deep brain stimulation; ICB, impulse control behaviours; LEDD, levodopa-equivalent daily dose; MAOIs, monoamine oxidase inhibitors; PD, Parkinson's disease; STN, subthalamic nucleus; TEED, total electrical energy delivered; UPDRS, Unified PD rating scale.