Table 3

Baseline and 24-h factors associated with END24

Associated factorsStudyNOR or p value
Clinical factors on admission
 Higher blood glucose levelAlvarez-Sabín et al30733.61 (1.23 to 10.64)
Mori et al505661.17 (1.07 to 1.28)*
 DiabetesDávalos et al23 (ECASSI)6151.79 (1.03 to 3.09)*
 Aspirin use at baselineGrotta et al27(NINDS)6240.53 (0.22 to 0.88)*
 Higher NIHSS scoreHaeusler et al49291†1.10 (1.05 to 1.14)†
616‡1.05 (1.02 to 1.09)‡
Morita et al4122p=0.010
 Lower NIHSS scoreMori et al505660.92 (0.87 to 0.97)*
 Coronary heart diseaseDávalos et al23 (ECASSI)6151.74 (1.09 to 2.78)*
 Higher admission delayDávalos et al23 (ECASSI)6151.22 (1.06 to 1.42)*
 Older ageMorita et al4122p=0.028
 Previous TIADharmasaroja et al482037.72 (1.07 to 55.99)
Radiological factors on admission
 HMCA signDávalos et al23 (ECASSI)6151.74 (1.09 to 2.78)*
 Arterial occlusion or stenosisAlexandrov et al255018.2 (1.98 to 167.34)
 Tandem ICA-M1 occlusionRubiera et al362214.26 (1.53 to 11.86)
 ICA occlusionMori et al505665.36 (2.60 to 11.09)*
 Early ischaemic changes (EIC) on CTDávalos et al23 (ECASSI)6151.93 (1.28 to 2.94)*
Aries et al43384p<0.001*
 EIC on CT or HMCAGrotta et al27(NINDS)6241.91 (1.13 to 3.23)*
 Higher DWI volumeMorita et al4122p=0.030
Clinical factors at 24-h
 Higher NIHSS scoreGrotta et al276242.54 (2.44 to 2.64)
Radiological factors at 24 h
 No recanalisationKimura et al3949p=0.039
 Arterial reocclusionSaqqur et al37§3744.85 (1.75 to 13.46)*
Del Río-Espínola et al46§222p=0.002
 Symptomatic ICHMori et al5056612.90 (2.76 to 67.41)*
Dharmasaroja et al482034.48 (1.47 to 13.64)
 Infarct >33% MCA territoryDávalos et al236152.5 (1.6 to 4.0)*
 Brain swellingDávalos et al236151.8 (1.1 to 3.2)*
  • *Multivariate analysis.

  • †Cohort Charité.

  • ‡Cohort TEMPiS.

  • §There is apparent overlap between the samples of these two studies.

  • DWI, diffusion-weighted imaging; ECASSI, The European Cooperative Acute Stroke Study; END24, early neurological deterioration within 24 h of acute ischaemic stroke; HMCA sign, hyperdense middle cerebral artery sign; ICA, internal carotid artery; ICH, intracranial haemorrhage; M1, first segment of middle cerebral artery; MCA, middle cerebral artery; NIHSS, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale; TEMPis, the Telemedical Project of Inte- grated Stroke Care; TIA, transient ischaemic attack.