Univariate analyses | Multivariate logistic regression | |||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|
No (n=1478) | Mild (n=252) | Moderate to severe (n=263) | p Value | OR (95% CI) | p Value | |
Sociodemographics | ||||||
Sex, male | 763 (51.6) | 123 (48.8) | 133 (50.6) | 0.70 | 1.13 (0.81 to 1.57) | 0.47 |
Age, years (OR per 10 years) | 50.2±12.5 | 50.2±11.8 | 51.1±11.2 | 0.58 | 0.99 (0.86 to 1.13) | 0.83 |
Clinical characteristics | ||||||
CAG repeats, number | 44.5±4.16 | 44.9±4.50 | 44.7±4.65 | 0.24 | ||
Duration of disease, years | 5.6 (3.2–9.4)* | 6.0 (3.6–10.0)* | 8.0 (4.8–12.0)† | <0.001 | 1.01 (0.98 to 1.04) | 0.61 |
TMS, points | 33.4±19.2* | 38.2±20.6† | 43.5±20.3‡ | <0.001 | 1.02 (1.01 to 1.03) | 0.005 |
TFC, points | 9 (6–12)* | 8 (5–11)† | 6 (4–9)‡ | <0.001 | 0.94 (0.88 to 1.01) | 0.08 |
Psychiatric history | ||||||
Depression | 666 (45.1)* | 138 (54.8)† | 180 (68.4)‡ | <0.001 | 1.59 (1.10 to 2.28) | 0.01 |
OCBs | 52 (3.5)* | 44 (17.5)† | 106 (40.3)‡ | <0.001 | 14.46 (9.38 to 22.27) | <0.001 |
Psychosis | 70 (4.7)* | 24 (9.5)† | 44 (16.7)‡ | <0.001 | 1.11 (0.61 to 2.03) | 0.73 |
Suicide attempt | 101 (6.8)* | 23 (9.1) | 30 (11.4)† | 0.03 | 1.04 (0.59 to 1.85) | 0.90 |
Psychotropic medication use | ||||||
Benzodiazepines | 208 (14.6)* | 57 (23.4)† | 73 (29.7)† | <0.001 | 1.67 (1.13 to 2.48) | 0.01 |
Antidepressants | 470 (33.2)* | 98 (40.3)† | 124 (49.4)‡ | <0.001 | 1.32 (0.93 to 1.89) | 0.12 |
Antipsychotics | 486 (34.0)* | 79 (32.5)* | 114 (45.2)† | 0.002 | 0.75 (0.51 to 1.08) | 0.13 |
Mood stabilisers/antiepileptics | 98 (6.7)* | 13 (5.2)* | 33 (12.8)† | 0.001 | 1.16 (0.67 to 2.02) | 0.60 |
Bold represents the values with p <0.05. *, † and ‡: Values in the same row with different superscript symbols are significantly different: p <0.05 (post hoc test). Univariate analyses: Data are presented as n (%), mean (±SD) or median (IQR) when appropriate.
p Values by χ^{2} tests for categorical data, by one-way between-groups analysis of variance for independent samples with normal distribution, or non-parametric Kruskal–Wallis test for continuous variables without normal distributions. Values in the same row with different superscript letters are significantly different (p<0.05).
Multivariate analyses: OR, 95% CI, and p value by binary logistic regression.
Logistic regression analysis (enter model) for ‘moderate to severe OCBs’ (n=232) versus ‘no OCBs’ (ie, reference: n=1364) (145 missings due to missing values (no start and stop date) for use of psychotropics). Covariates logistic regression analysis: All variables with p value <0.05 in the univariate analysis were entered (duration of disease, Total Motor Score (TMS), Total Functional Capacity (TFC), depression in past, obsessive/compulsive behaviours (OCBs) in past, psychosis in past, suicide attempt in past, use of benzodiazepines, use of antidepressants, use of antipsychotics, use of mood stabilisers/antiepileptics), while sex and age were forced into the multivariate model.
HD, Huntington's disease.