Table 5

Linear mixed model parameter estimates (±SE) for baseline predictors of decline in composite neuropsychological test scores in stroke/TIA patients*

PredictorAll patientsNo interval stroke/TIA
Parameter estimatep ValueParameter estimatep Value
 Age in years0.00±0.000.820.00±0.000.67
 Education in years0.02±±0.010.59
 MMSE score−0.02±0.030.48−0.04±0.030.20
 IQCODE score−0.43±0.300.150.14±0.280.61
Cardiovascular risks
 High cholesterol0.16±0.120.18−0.06±0.100.56
Laboratory measures
 Homocysteine in μmmol/L0.00±0.000.890.00±0.000.85
APOE4 ε4 positive0.19±0.210.36−0.48±0.170.009
MTHFR T positive−0.12±0.200.530.14±0.180.43
 Hippocampus in mL†0.36±±0.110.008
 WMHs in L‡−0.93±2.550.71−1.05±2.440.66
  • *Parameter estimates are for predictor×time (follow-up vs baseline) interaction terms adjusted for age, sex and education. A negative parameter estimate indicates greater decline and a positive parameter estimate indicates less decline if meeting a categorical factor (eg, female vs male) or for increasing values of a continuous factor (eg, hippocampus volume).

  • †Additionally adjusted for intracranial volume and one outlier (volume <3 SD) excluded.

  • ‡Additionally adjusted for intracranial volume and four outliers (volume >3 SD) excluded.

  • APOE4, apolipoprotein E; IQCODE, Informant Questionnaire for Cognitive Decline in the Elderly; MMSE, Mini Mental State Examination; MTHFR, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T single nucleotide polymorphism; TIA, transient ischaemic attack; WMHs, white matter hyperintensities.