Table 3

Characteristics and correlates of irritability/aggression subscale categories in HD mutation carriers

 Univariate analysesMultivariate logistic regression
No (n=1223)Mild (n=493)Moderate to severe (n=277)p ValueOR (95% CI)p Value
Sociodemographics
 Sex, male625 (51.1)235 (47.7)*159 (57.4)†0.041.45 (1.09 to 1.93)0.01
 Age, years (OR per 10 years)50.8±12.149.8±12.449.3±12.80.120.86 (0.76 to 0.97)0.02
Clinical characteristics
 CAG repeats, number44.4±3.8944.7±4.9344.7±4.600.34
 Duration of disease, year5.7 (3.3–9.6)*6.0 (3.5–9.8)6.3 (3.5–10.6)†0.051.01 (0.98 to 1.04)0.47
 TMS, points34.9±19.7*34.6±19.6*38.4±20.7†0.021.01 (1.00 to 1.02)0.35
 TFC, points9 (5–12)*9 (6–12)*7 (5–11)†<0.0010.97 (0.91 to 1.02)0.23
 Psychiatric history
  Depression552 (45.1)*264 (53.5)†168 (60.6)†<0.0011.70 (1.26 to 2.28)0.001
  OCBs94 (7.7)*65 (13.2)†43 (15.5)†<0.0011.48 (0.96 to 2.29)0.08
  Psychosis64 (5.2)*41 (8.3)†33 (11.9)†<0.0011.70 (1.03 to 2.82)0.04
  Suicide attempt83 (6.8)*32 (6.5)*39 (14.1)†<0.0011.71 (1.10 to 2.66)0.02
Psychotropic medication use
 Benzodiazepines206 (17.5)75 (15.5)57 (22.1)0.08
 Antidepressants417 (35.7)168 (35.4)107 (40.1)0.38
 Antipsychotics422 (35.8)*144 (29.9)†113 (43.0)‡0.0020.97 (0.71 to 1.32)0.85
 Mood stabilisers/antiepileptics84 (6.9)*27 (5.5)*33 (12.0)†0.0031.32 (0.83 to 2.10)0.24
  • Bold represents the values with p <0.05. *, † and ‡: Values in the same row with different superscript symbols are significantly different: p <0.05 (post hoc test). Univariate analyses: Data are presented as n (%), mean (±SD) or median (IQR) when appropriate.

  • p Values by χ2 tests for categorical data, by one-way between-groups analysis of variance for independent samples with normal distribution, or non-parametric Kruskal–Wallis test for continuous variables without normal distributions. Values in the same row with different superscript letters are significantly different (p<0.05).

  • Multivariate analyses: OR, 95% CI, and p value by binary logistic regression.

  • Logistic regression analysis (enter model) for ‘moderate to severe irritability/aggression’ (n=261) versus ‘no irritability/aggression’ (ie, reference: n=1174) (65 missings due to missing values (no start and stop date) for use of psychotropics). Covariates logistic regression analysis: All variables with p value <0.05 in the univariate analysis were entered (duration of disease, Total Motor Score (TMS), Total Functional Capacity (TFC), depression in past, obsessive/compulsive behaviours (OCBs) in past, psychosis in past, suicide attempt in past, use of antipsychotics, use of mood stabilisers/antiepileptics), while sex and age were forced into the multivariate model.

  • HD, Huntington's disease.