Table 1

Demographic and clinical characteristics for patients and healthy volunteers (HVs)

PHx (n=17)nPHx (n=31)HV (n=30)p Value
Age, years*40 (17–53)38 (19–55)37 (19–64)0.74
Female14 (82%)17 (55%)18 (60%)0.20
Lesion laterality (R/L)7/6 (41/35%)11/16 (35/52%)NA0.44
Epilepsy onset, years†14 (7.5–25)17 (11–22)NA0.94
Epilepsy duration, years†21 (10–30)19 (10–30)NA0.70
MRI negative4 (23%)4 (13%)NA0.43
HS7 (41%)20 (64%)NA0.12
Cavernomas2 (12%)2 (6.5%)NA0.61
DNET2 (12%)5 (16%)NA1.00
FCD0 (0%)2 (6.5%)NA0.53
Other‡2 (12%)3 (10%)NA1.00
Dual pathology0 (0%)5 (16%)NA0.15
Number of AEDs*3 (1–4)2 (1–4)NA0.28
Premorbid IQ§99.5 (17)97.4 (12.3)111 (10.6)¶
BDI-FS*4 (0–12)2 (0–9)0.5 (0–5)¶
BAI*9 (2–33)6 (0–28)2.5 (0–12)¶
Lifetime psychiatric history:
 Unipolar depression12 (70%)NANA
 Anxiety disorder3 (18%)NANA
 Depression and anxiety2 (12%)NANA
  • *Median (range).

  • †Median (IQR).

  • ‡Abnormal gyral folding/calcification or epidermoid cyst.

  • §Mean (SD).

  • ¶Sig difference to both temporal lobe epilepsy groups (p<0.01).

  • AEDs, antiepileptic drugs; DNET, dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumour; FCD, focal cortical dysplasia; HS, hippocampal sclerosis; NA, not applicable.