Table 1

Patients with focal epilepsy and frequent IED—clinical details

IDAge/sex/handed- nessProbable localisation
Onset/duration (years)Postictal intervalTreatmentSeizuresEEGMEGMRI[18F]FDG-PETGlobal [18F]GE-179 VTApproximately N of observed IEDs (t=0–30 min)[18F]GE-179 VT increases[18F]GE-179 VT decreases
141/M/RL frontal14.5/26.56.0 hCBZ, LEV, LTG, ZNSSPS, CPS, SGSL frontotemporalNAR IFG lesionL temporal6.1662L frontal
222/M/RL temporal4/187.5 hCBZ, LEV, LACCPS, SGSL frontotemporal
and R temporal
NAL HSL hemisphere7.2043
2.5/36.545 minCBZ, CLB, PHT, TPM, fexofenadineSPS, CPS, SGSR frontotemporalR frontal, L and R
Bilateral tubers: F, P, L-O, periventricular calcR temporal8.160
10/1820.5 hLEV, sertraline, amlodipineSPS (pupillary hippus)R temporoparietalR parieto-occipital
>R temporal
>L occipital
Bilateral tubers: L and R frontal, L temporal,
R parieto-occipital, L occipital
NA4.53EEG data corruptedBrainstem; L temporal; R temporalR parietal
550/F/RMRI negative
Multifocal EEG/MEG
11/3939 daysLEV, PHT, lofepramineCPS SGSL>R temporalL and R
NegL temporal5.3226R frontal
633/M/LMRI negative
Unifocal EEG/MEG
19/14NACLN, RUF, fluoxetineCPSL temporalL frontotemporalNegNeg3.90168
Unifocal EEG
16/73 daysCBZ, VALSPS, SGSR frontalNANegNeg7.7286L frontal; R frontalL temporal; R frontal
840/F/LMRI negative
PET/MEG L Frontal
12.5/2811 daysCLB, LAC, OXCSGSL>R frontalL FNegL frontal8.4042
924/M/RMRI negative
Multifocal EEG/MEG
7/176.5 hLAC, LEV, LTG, OXC, CLBCPS, SGSR frontocentralL frontal
>L insula.
>L frontotemporal
1050/F/RMRI negative
Multifocal EEG/MEG
13/3710+yearsLEV, LAC, LTGCPSL>R temporalL and R TNegNA8.17Cont epileptiform activity*
1120/F/RMRI negative
Multifocal EEG
14/639.5 hCLB, OXC,CPS, SGSR>L temporalNANegNeg8.883
  • Antidepressant drugs (patients 4–6) are displayed in bold font.

  • *EEG revealed continuous ongoing focal epileptiform activity in patient 10, who had not shown clinically evident seizure activity within the preceding 10 years. Underline indicates concordance between the cluster of increase and the location of the presumed epileptogenic zone, where known.

  • Calc, calcification; CBZ, carbamazepine; CLB, clobazam; CLN, clonazepam; CPS, complex partial seizures; EEG, electroencephalography; F, frontal lobe; F/M, female/male; [18F]FDG-PET, [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography; HS, hippocampal sclerosis; ID, identifying number; IED, interictal epileptiform discharges; IFG, inferior frontal gyrus; L/R, left/right; LAC, lacosamide; LEV, levetiracetam; LTG, lamotrigine; MEG, magnetoencephalography; MRI, magnetic resonance imagining; NA, not available; Neg, negative, that is, no significant findings; O, occipital; OXC, oxcarbazepine; P, parietal lobe; PHT, phenytoin; RUF, rufinamide; SGS, secondary generalised seizures; SPS, simple partial seizures; TPM, topiramate; VAL, valproate; VT, volume-of-distribution; ZNS, zonisamide.