Table 2

Studies on treatment of catatonia

MedicationType of studyConclusion
Lorazepam
Ungvari et al31
A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over study of 18 patientsNot effective in chronic schizophrenia with catatonia
Lorazepam/ECT
Bush et al12
Prospective study of 28 patientsSixteen of the 21 who completed treatment showed benefit. Four patients that failed lorazepam responded to ECT
Lorazepam
Tibrewal et al55
Retrospective study of 107Thirty two of 99 (32.3%) showed response (with complete resolution of catatonic symptoms). Improvement in catatonic symptoms was seen in 68 of 99 (68.7%) patients
Lorazepam-diazepam
Lin and Huang52
Retrospective study of 21 patientsAmong 21 patients 13 (61.9%) patients responded within 2 h, 18 (85.7%) responded within 1 day, and all became catatonia-free within a week
Lorazepam-diazepam
Huang et al65
Retrospective study of 12 patientsEight patients complete remission (one dose of 2 mg lorazepam intramuscularly (IM)). Two patients needed two doses of 2 mg lorazepam IM. Two patients failed lorazepam but responded to one dose of 10 mg diazepam intravenous. All catatonic features remitted in 24 h with 100% response rate
Lorazepam and risperidone
Grenier et al66; Prakash et al67
Case reportsEffective in two case reports
Zolpidem
Cottencin et al33
Case series 12 patientsZolpidem was used as a diagnostic test in 6 out of the 12 patients. Response was seen in 4 and no response in 2 patients
Zolpidem
Peglow et al32
Case reportEffective in case report
Amantadine
de Lucena et al35
Case series five patientsEffective in case series
Amantadine
Hervey et al68; Ene-Stroescu et al69
Case reportsEffective in case reports
Amantadine/memantineCase reports 25 patientsEffective in case reports
Memantine
Obregon et al57
Case reportEffective in case report
Topiramate
McDaniel et al70
Case series 4 patientsEffective in case series
Olanzapine or clozapine
Nicolato et al71; Chang et al72; Spiegel73; Chattopadhyay et al74; Ueda et al75
Case reports and case seriesEffective in case reports and case series
Olanzapine and amantadine
Babington et al76
Case reportEffective in case report
Quetiapine
Yoshimura et al77
Case series 39 patientsEffective in case series
Risperidone
Kopala et al78; Hesslinger et al59
Case reportsEffective in case reports
ECT
Raveendranathan et al63
Retrospective study 63 patientsResponse to ECT was noticed in 56 out of 63 patients (88.89%).
ECT
van Waarde et al61
Retrospective study 27Improvement was seen in 16 (59%) patients
ECT
Rohland et al79
Retrospective study with 22 patientsImprovement was seen in 26 out of 28 cases (93%)
ECT and olanzapine
Tan et al80
Case reportEffective in case report
  • ECT, electroconvulsive therapy.