Table 4

The most noticeable findings regarding reinnervation or postoperative progression of disease (change in pattern) following 61 procedures with selective peripheral denervation in 54 patients with cervical dystonia

Degree of affectionReoperation
Minor degreeMajor degreeRepeated or additional denervationPallidal stimulation
Muscles reinnervated without change in pattern
 Splenius2 (3%)4 (7%)2 (3%)1 (2%)
 Sternocleido3 (5%)1 (2%)1 (2%)
Muscles reinnervated and change in pattern
 Splenius5 (8%)9 (15%)4 (7%)5 (8%)
 Sternocleido2 (3%)1 (2%)1 (2%)
Progressive disease/change in pattern without reinnervation13 (21%)2 (3%)1 (2%)
Total23 (38%)18 (29%)8 (13%)8 (13%)
  • In some patients the reinnervation may be bilateral. A pathologic muscular activity that significantly affected the normal cervical posture was defined as ‘major degree’ while an activity that did not imply any major impact was defined as ‘minor degree’.