TableĀ 3

Results are listed from a meta-analysis of 37 studies on active, passive and resting state paradigms of consciousness testing in VS and MCS, comprising 1041 patients

Active paradigms
Command followingNo command followingTotalPer centCommand followingNo command followingTotalPer cent
VS4225029214.4%fMRI6618024626.8%
MCS9820530332.0%EEG7427534921.2%
595595
MCS vs VS: OR 2.85 (95% CI 1.9 to 4.27; p<0.0001)*EEG vs fMRI: OR 0.73 (95% CI 0.50 to 1.07; p=0.112)
Passive paradigms
Cortical connectivityNo cortical connectivityTotalPer centCortical connectivityNo cortical connectivityTotalPer cent
VS9126135225.6%fMRI359212727.6%
MCS13410924355.1%EEG19228347540.4%
595602
MCS vs VS: OR (3.53; 95% CI 2.49 to 4.99; p<0.0001)*EEG vs fMRI: OR (1.78; 95% CI 1.16 to 2.74; p=0.008)*
Resting state paradigms (fMRI)Active versus passive paradigms
DMN preservedDMN not preservedTotalPer centSigns of consciousnessNo signs of consciousnessTotalPer cent
VS9233228.1%Active14045559523.5%
MCS10152540.0%Passive22537059537.8%
571190
MCS vs VS: OR 1.70 (95% CI 0.56 to 5.17) p=0.35Passive vs active: OR 1.98 (95% CI 1.54 to 2.54; p<0.0001)*
  • For details, please see Methods and Results sections.

  • *Statistically significant.

  • DMN, default mode network; fMRI, functional MRI; MCS, minimal conscious state; VS, vegetative state.