Table 2

This table shows results from a systematic review of studies on passive and resting state paradigms of consciousness testing in VS and MCS (n≥20 patients)

SourceSiteModalityDesignClinical ratingSerial testingParadigmN (VS, MCS)Aetiology TBI, CVA, anoxia, otherCortical connectivity
Bekinschtein et al56Buenos Aires, ArgentinafMRISingle (p)CRS-RNoSpeech24 (24, 0)5 TBI, 19 non-TBI5/24 VS
Coleman et al51 52Cambridge, UKfMRISingle (p)CRS-RNoSpeech41 (22, 19)26, 4, 11, 02/22 VS, 2/19 MCS
Crone et al50Salzburg, AustriafMRISingle (p)CRS-RNoSpeech25 (17, 8)12, 0, 13, 06/17 VS, 2/8 MCS
Chennu et al53Cambridge, UKEEGSingle (p)CRS-RNoSpeech21 (9, 12)7, 0, 4, 01/9 VS, 3/12 MCS
Boly et al9Liège, BelgiumEEGSingle (p)CRS-RNoAuditory21 (8, 13)7, 7, 7, 01/8 VS, 4/13 MCS
Fischer et al44Lyon, FranceEEGSingle (p)CRS-RNoSpeech27 (16, 11)4, 4, 18, 13/16 VS, 4/11 MCS
Kotchoubey et al37Tübingen, DEEEGSingle (p)DRSNoAuditory88 (50, 38)31, 27, 27, 316/50 VS, 14/38 MCS
Rohaut et al27Paris, FranceEEGSingle (p)CRS-RNoSpeech29 (15, 14)7, 9, 8, 52/15 VS, 7/14 MCS
Schnakers et al28Liège, BelgiumEEGSingle (p)CRS-RNoSpeech22 (8, 14)10, 2, 8, 2VS 0/8, MCS 14/14
Schoenle and Witzke29Magdeburg, DEEEGSingle (p)Author's definitionNoSpeech66 (43, 23)28, 21, 17, 05/43 VS, 18/23 MCS
Sitt et al31Paris, FranceEEGSingle (r)CRS-RLimitedAuditory (local-global)100 (59, 41)24, 35, 24, 1720/59, 31/41
Demertzi et al46Liège, BelgiumfMRISingle (p)CRS-RNoResting state48 (24, 24)21, 13, 12, 29/24 VS, 9/24 MCS (DMN)
  • For studies with n<20, please see online supplementary table S1.

  • CRS-R, Coma Recovery Scale-Revised; CVA, cerebrovascular accident (including cerebral infarction, parenchymal haemorrhage, subarachnoid bleeding); DMN, default mode network; DRS, Disability Rating Scale; fMRI, functional MRI; MCS, minimal conscious state; ns, not specified; p, prospective; r, retrospective; TBI, traumatic brain injury; VS, vegetative state.