Table 2

Studies that have used in-vivo imaging of neuroinflammation in human patients with dementia

Author (year)Number of participants in the following groupsImaging ligand(s)Neuroanatomical areas with significantly increased inflammation in dementia group relative to controlsOther findings
Groom (1995)Controls: 1
AD: 8
Small unilateral gliomas: 7
(11C)(R)PK11195
(18F)FDG
NoneNone reported
Cagnin (2001)Controls: 15
AD: 8
MCI: 1
11C(R)PK11195
18FFDG
Inferior and middle temporal gyri, fusiform gyri, left parahippocampal gyrus, left amygdala, left posterior cingulate, inferior parietal lobes, putamen and right pallidum in AD relative to controls. Fusiform gyri, inferior temporal gyri and left parahippocampus in MCI relative to controlsIncrease inflammation in the left inferior temporal lobe discriminated AD relative to controls with a sensitivity of 75% and no false categorisations of controls. Areas with high inflammation showed the highest rate of atrophy over 12–24 months in AD
Versijpt (2003)Controls: 9
AD: 10
123IPK11195
99mTc-ECD
Prefrontal cortices, lateral frontal cortices, left orbitofrontal cortex, right mesotemporal cortexSpecific regionally increased inflammation was associated with specific cognitive impairments eg, picture recognition task and right superior frontal cortex, orientation task and left lateral frontal, right superior frontal and left parietal cortex, verbal fluency and left parietal inferior cortex
Cagnin (2004)Controls: 8
FTLD: 5
11C(R)PK11195Putamen, left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, right hippocampus, right parahippocampusNone reported
Kropholler (2005)Controls: 6
AD: 2
MCI: 5
11C(R)PK11195Intervention and control groups not statistically compared in article for this purposeNone reported
Anderson (2007)Controls: 12
AD: 4
Huntington's: 11
11C(R)PK11195Intervention and control groups not statistically compared in article for this purposeNone reported
Kropholler (2007)Controls: 20
AD: 9
MCI: 10
11C(R)PK11195NoneNone reported
Schuitemaker (2007)Controls: 20
AD: 9
11C(R)PK11195Intervention and control groups not statistically compared in article for this purposeNone reported
Turkheimer (2007)Controls: 18
AD: 4
Huntington's: 3
11C(R)PK11195Intervention and control groups not statistically compared in article for this purposeNone reported
Boellaard (2008)Controls: 9
AD: 9
11C(R)PK11195Intervention and control groups not statistically compared in article for this purposeNone reported
Edison (2008)Controls: 24
AD: 13
11C(R)PK11195
11CPIB
Frontal, temporal, parietal, occipital and cingulate corticesInflammation in posterior cingulate gyri, parietal cortices and frontal cortices correlated with MMSE scores. Inflammation did not correlate with PiB binding
Esposito (2008)Controls: 9
AD: 8
(1-11C)AA
15Owater
78 of 90 hemispheric grey-matter regions widespread in the neocortex, hippocampus and amygdala. The only regions without increased inflammation were the caudate, pallidum, posterior cingulate, right anterior and middle cingulate, left superior occipital cortex, left superior and medial temporal poles and left thalamus ie, mainly subcorticalNone reported
Tomasi (2008)Controls: 10
AD: 10
11C(R)PK11195Cerebellum, lateral occipital lobe, anterior cingulate gyrus, posterior cingulate gyrus, frontal lobe middle frontal gyrus, posterior temporal lobe, parietal lobe, thalamus, superior parietal gyrus and occipital lobe lingual gyrusNone reported
Yasuno (2008)Controls: 10
AD: 10
11CDAA1106Dorsal and medial prefrontal cortices, lateral temporal cortices, parietal cortices, occipital cortices, anterior cingulate cortices, striatum and cerebellumNo correlation between MMSE and inflammation in any volume of interest
Okello (2009)Controls: 24
AD: 22
Amnestic MCI: 14
11C(R)PK11195
11CPIB
11C-PiB-positive MCI patients had increased inflammation in frontal cortices relative to controls. Data not given for inflammation in AD relative to controlsNo correlation between regional inflammation and PiB in MCI. No correlation between age of onset or MMSE score and inflammation in AD-PiB positive patients. Correlation between lower MMSE and increased inflammation in the anterior cingulate and temporal cortices in AD-PiB negative patients
Wiley (2009)Controls: 5
AD: 6
MCI: 6
11C(R)PK11195 11CPIBNoneNo difference in inflammation between PiB positive or negative patients
Gulyas (2011)Controls: 12
AD: 6
11C-vincopetineNoneNone reported
Santillo (2011)Controls: 11
AD: 9
11C-DED 11CPIBFrontal, parietal, temporal and medial temporal lobesCorrelation between inflammation and PiB binding in occipital cortex
Yokokura (2011)Controls: 10
AD: 11
11C(R)PK11195 11CPIB 18FFDGMedial frontal and parietal cortices and left temporal cortexNegative correlation between MMSE and inflammation in the left anterior cingulate cortex, left precuneus, left hippocampus and left middle frontal cortex. Negative correlation between inflammation and PiB binding in posterior cingulate cortices
Carter (2012)Controls: 14
AD: 7
MCI: 8
11C-DED 11CPIB 18F-FDGFrontal and parietal cortices in MCI relative to controls. Right occipital cortex in MCI PiB+ patients relative to controls/MCI PiB patients/AD. Decreased inflammation in right hippocampus in AD relative to MCI and controlsNo regional correlation between the 3 PET tracers
Yaqub (2012)Controls: 17
AD: 8
MCI: 9
11C(R)PK11195NoneNone reported
Yasuno (2012)Controls: 10
AD: 10
MCI: 7
11CDAA1106Cerebellum, medial prefrontal cortices, parietal cortices, lateral temporal cortices, anterior cingulate cortices and striatum in MCI and AD relative to controls. No regional difference between MCI and ADNo correlation between MMSE and regional inflammation. MCI patients with global inflammation 0.5 SDs greater than the control mean developed dementia within 5 years (75% AD, 25% DLB)
Edison (2013)Controls: 24
PDD: 11
Parkinson's: 8
11C(R)PK11195 11CPIB 18FFDGAnterior and posterior cingulate, frontal, temporal, parietal, occipital cortices and striatum in PDD relative to controlsNegative correlation between inflammation and MMSE in temperoparietal, occipital and frontal cortices
Iannaccone (2013)Controls: 11
DLB: 6
Parkinson's: 6
11C(R)PK11195Basal ganglia, substantia nigra, frontal lateral cortices, parietal lateral cortices, temporal lateral cortices, anterior and posterior cingulate cortices, occipital medial cortices, occipital lateral cortices, temporal poles and precuneus in DLB relative to controlsNone reported
Kreisl (2013)Controls: 13
AD: 19
MCI: 10
11CPBR28 11CPIBPrefrontal cortices, sensorimotor cortices, inferior parietal cortices, superior parietal cortices, middle and inferior temporal cortices, posterior cingulate cortices, occipital cortices, hippocampi and entorhinal cortices in AD relative to controls. Differences were greatest in inferior parietal lobules, middle and inferior temporal cortices and precuneus, but no difference was seen in white matter, thalamus, striatum or cerebellum. No difference in inflammation in any region between MCI and controlsMMSE, Clinical Dementia Rating Scale Sum of Boxes, Logical Memory Intermediate (Wechsler Memory Scale Third Edition), Trail Making part B and Block Design (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Third Edition) scores negatively correlated with inflammation, particularly in inferior parietal lobules, in MCI and AD. Inflammation in parietal cortex and striatum negatively correlated with age of onset in MCI and AD. Correlation between inflammation and PiB in inferior parietal lobules, superior temporal cortices, precuneus, hippocampi and parahippocampal gyri, in AD and MCI, after partial volume correction
Schuitemaker (2013)Controls: 21
AD: 19
MCI: 10
11C(R)PK11195Voxel-wise statistical parametric mapping showed small clusters of increased inflammation in occipital lobes in AD relative to controls. Region of interest analysis showed no significant differences in inflammation between groups (including between MCI and control patients)No significant difference in regional inflammation between MCI patients who progressed to dementia and MCI patients who did not. Inflammation did not correlate with MMSE, New York University paragraph recall test, Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test or Trail A and B tests
Varrone (2013)Controls: 7
AD: 9
18FFEDAA1106NoneNone reported
Yoder (2013)Controls: 18
AD: 7
MCI: 7
11CPBR28Intervention and control groups not statistically compared in article for this purposePBR28 binding is sensitive to TSPO genotype
  • AD, Alzheimer's disease; DLB, dementia with Lewy Bodies; FTLD, frontotemporal lobar dementia; MCI, mild cognitive impairment; MMSE, Mini-Mental State Examination; PDD, Parkinson's disease dementia; PET, positron emission tomography.